A background-limited optical system is to view an object through a turbulent medium. The threshold systems for detecting and resolving specific details of the object are derived and their probabilities of correct detection and resolution evaluated. The variance of a maximum-likelihood estimate of the position of the object is calculated for large signal-to-noise ratio. Specific numerical results are given for turbulence that produces a gaussian mutual-coherence function in light from a point object. A model of such turbulence, depicting it as concentrated in one or more thin, homogeneous phase screens, is proposed.
CARL W. HELSTROM, "Detection and Resolution of Incoherent Objects Seen through a Turbulent Medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 331-341 (1969)