The visibility of various colors underwater with artificial illumination has been measured in three different bodies of water chosen to sample a continuum from clear to turbid. Subjects were Scuba divers who observed the colors at night, using a mercury or an incandescent light source. The visibility results show numerous interactions among color, fluorescence, type of light source, and type of water; from them, it is possible to select the optimum combination to be used under a wide variety of conditions.
JO ANN S. KINNEY, S. M. LURIA, and DONALD O. WEITZMAN, "Visibility of Colors Underwater Using Artificial Illumination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 624-625 (1969)