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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 6, Iss. 4 — Jul. 1, 1922
  • pp: 343–359

A THEORY OF INTERMITTENT VISION

HERBERT E. IVES

JOSA, Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 343-359 (1922)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.6.000343


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HERBERT E. IVES, "A THEORY OF INTERMITTENT VISION," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 343-359 (1922)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-6-4-343


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References

  1. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. 113, p. 347, 120, p. 313, 136, p. 445.
  2. Kennelly and Whiting, National Electric Light Assn., 1907 convention.
  3. Luckiesh, Physical Review 4, 1, p. 1; 1914.
  4. Ives and Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. April 1916, p. 290.
  5. Ives, Critical Frequency Relations in Scotopic Vision, J. Opt. Soc. Am. May, 1922, p. 254.
  6. Troland, Am. Jn. Physiology 32, [May] p. 8; 1913.
  7. See Drysdale, Proc. Optical Conv., p. 173, 1905.
  8. Hecht, Science, April 15, p. 347, 1921.
  9. Goldman, Ann. der Physik, 27, p. 449, 1908.
  10. The electrical behavior of these photoelectric cells under illumination is strikingly like that of the excised eye, as studied by Waller and other. Notable resemblances are shown in the preliminary negative response on commencement, and terminal positive twitch on cessation of illumination, and in the reversal of the reaction with age. Bose ("Response in the Living and non-Living," p. 169) remarks "there is not a single phenomenon in the responses, normal or abnormal, exhibited by the retina, which has not its counterpart in the sensitive cell constructed of inorganic material."
  11. I am very greatly indebted to Mr. T. C. Fry for assistance in the mathematical work which follows, and for helpful discussions of the general problem.
  12. It will be noted that this result follows, whatever the form of the re-composition function. The choice of be for this function is in deference to the generally accepted idea of a logarithmic response to a steady stimulus. The farther the re-composition function departs from a simple direct proportionality to the reaction strength the higher must be the frequency to insure Talbot's law holding. It is a fact of experiment that this law already holds at the critical frequency for flicker disappearance.
  13. See Preston's "Heat," 2d Ed., p. 654.
  14. The mutually inclined ω-log I lines obtained by the writer previously for the case shown in Fig. 4 (Phil. Mag., April, 1917, p. 360) are apparently in error, due probably to the short range of intensities available for study in the apparatus then used.
  15. For the influence of diffusion on the response of a liquid photoelectric cell, see Samsonow, Zeits, f. Wiss. Phot. XI, 1912, p. 33.

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