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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 63, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 1973
  • pp: 675–685

Higher orders in the diffraction pattern of random scenes in coherent optical systems

H. Stark and F. B. Tuteur  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 63, Issue 6, pp. 675-685 (1973)

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When certain scenes are stored on photographic emulsions, the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of these scenes exhibits an array of equally spaced bright spikes along the axes that are not accounted for by simple theory. Experimental evidence, obtained with random-checkerboard patterns, supports the proposed theory that these higher orders result from interaction of the stored density variations and the induced relief image in the emulsion.

H. Stark and F. B. Tuteur, "Higher orders in the diffraction pattern of random scenes in coherent optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 675-685 (1973)

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  1. E. Garcia, H. Stark, and R. C. Barker, Appl. Opt. 11, 1480 (1972).
  2. J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 493 (1967).
  3. E. L. O'Neill, Introduction to Statistical Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1963), p. 114.
  4. C. B. Burckhardt, Appl. Opt. 9, 695 (1970).
  5. Y. Taheda, Y. Oshida, and Y. Miyamura, Appl. Opt. 11, 818 (1972).
  6. B. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1971), Ch. 8.
  7. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1968), p. 14.
  8. H. M. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 533 (1968).
  9. J. Minkoff, Ph.D. thesis, Electrical Eng. Dept., Columbia University (1967), p. 157.
  10. The sample was bleached in Kodak Bleach Bath R-9 (see Kodak Pamphlet No. P-230) and fixed in Kodak Rapid Fixer. The final sample was free from stains and any visually observable density variation.
  11. In the case of ergodic processes, the diffraction pattern of a single sample can be used as an estimate of the power spectrum, provided that the optical-system parameters are correctly chosen and sufficient smoothing is done in the frequency plane to reduce the variability. See, for example, H. Stark, W. R. Bennett, and M. Arm, Appl. Opt. 8, 2165 (1969).

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