This paper considers diffusers characterized by random variations of optical path, such as ground-glass-surface diffusers. The theoretical limits on the light distributions realizable with random phase diffusers are derived, and the important parameters controlling these light distributions are identified. Methods for generating controlled random signals that, when converted to optical-path variations, have the correct parameters to synthesize diffusers with any desired, realizable light distribution are described. Some goniophotometric data taken from diffusers synthesized by this method are given in support of the theory. These results represent a basic solution of the random-phase-diffuser synthesis problem.
C. N. Kurtz, H. O. Hoadley, and J. J. DePalma, "Design and synthesis of random phase diffusers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1080-1092 (1973)