Values are given for construction of a diagram giving the MacAdam limits of luminous reflectance for optimal colors in the CIE 1931 colorimetric system for the illuminant D65. It is shown that the amount by which the luminous reflectance of a bluish white object color departs from the MacAdam limit for an optimal color having the same chromaticity coordinates is closely related to its visually perceived whiteness. For fluorescent colors, this deviation is designated luminous fluorescence.
Åke S:son Stenius, "Optimal colors and luminous fluorescence of bluish whites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 213-216 (1975)