Polarized absorption and dye-laser excited fluorescence spectra of Nd<sup>3+</sup> in the Y<sup>3+</sup> site of yttrium orthovanadate at 85 and 300°K are presented and analyzed. The absence of allowed transitions and the unusual concentration of line strength into one transition in π polarization within a given line group is shown by the Judd-Ofelt theory to be a consequence of the <i>D</i><sub><i>2d</i></sub> symmetry of the site and ion placements in the unit cell which cause the <i>A</i><sup>7</sup><sub>±6</sub> odd-parity crystal-field coefficient to be dominant. An energy level scheme giving level positions, level identities, and observed transitions is presented. The ground state was found to be Γ<sub>7</sub>(µ = ± 3/2) with a <i>J</i><sup><i>z</i></sup>, composition of ∓ 1/2, ± 7/2, and ∓ 9/2. Linewidths and peak cross sections of the [Equation] transitions are also presented. The principal laser line in this group at 10640.9 ± 0.2 Å was found to be predominately π polarized and to have a cross section of 30 × 10<sup>-19</sup> cm<sup>2</sup>, which is 4.6 times larger than the laser transition of Nd<sup>3+</sup> in YAG.
© 1976 Optical Society of America
Perry Pappas Yaney and L. G. DeShazer, "Spectroscopic studies and analysis of the laser states of Nd3+ in YVO4," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1405-1414 (1976)