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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 67, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 1977
  • pp: 1475–1489

Steady-state evoked potentials

David Regan  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 67, Issue 11, pp. 1475-1489 (1977)

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The advantages of steady-state EP recording include (1) speed in assessing sensory function in normal and sick infants (e.g., in amblyopia) and in sick adults (e.g., in multiple sclerosis); (2) monitoring certain activities of sensory pathways that do not intrude into conscious perception; (3) rapidly assessing sensory function when a large number of subjects must be tested (e.g., in refraction); (4) objective measurement at very high suprathreshold levels where psychophysical methods are difficult or ineffective; (5) rapidly assessing sensory function in normal subjects when EP variability and nonstationarity preculde lengthy experiments; and (6) providing a speedy objective equivalent to behavioral test in animals.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

David Regan, "Steady-state evoked potentials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1475-1489 (1977)

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  1. F. W. Campbell, L. Maffei, and M. Piccolino, "The contrast sensitivity of the cat," J. Physiol. 229, 719–731 (1973).
  2. S. Bisti and L. Maffei, "Behavioural constrast sensivitity of cat in various visual meridians," J. Physiol. 241, 201–210 (1974).
  3. D. Regan, N. A. M. Schellart, H. Spekreijse, and T. J. T. P. Van der Berg, "Photometry in goldfish by electrophysiological recording: comparison of criterion response method with heterochromatic flicker photometry," Vision Res. 15, 799–807 (1975).
  4. D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Electrophysiological evidence for the existence of neurons selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in depth," Nature 246, 504–506 (1973).
  5. K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Visual sensitivity to disparity pulses: evidence for directional sensitivity," Vision Res. 14, 175–183 (1974).
  6. S. M. Zeki, "Cells responding to changing image size and disparity in the cortex of rhesus monkey," J. Physiol. 242, 827–841 (1974).
  7. M. Cynader and D. Regan, "Neurons in cat parastriate cortex sensitive to the direction of motion in three-dimensional space," J. Physiol. (to be published).
  8. D. Regan, "Some characteristics of average steady-state and transient responses evoked by modulated light," Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 238–248 (1966).
  9. D. Regan, Evoked Potentials in Psychology, Sensory Physiology and Clinical Medicine (Chapman and Hall, London, and Wiley, New York, 1972).
  10. D. Regan, "Recent advances in electrical recording from the brain (Review)," Nature 253, 401–407 (1975).
  11. L. H. Van der Tweel and H. F. E. Verduyn Lunel, "Human visual responses to sinusoidally modulated light," Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 587–598 (1965).
  12. D. Regan, "Chromatic adaptation and steady-state evoked potentials," Vision Res. 8, 149–158 (1968).
  13. D. Regan, "A high frequency mechanism that underlies visual evoked potentials," Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 231–237 (1968).
  14. H. Spekreijse, "Analysis of EEG responses in man," Thesis, University of Amsterdam (Junk, The Hague, 1966).
  15. D. Regan, "Evoked potentials and sensation," Percept. Psychophys. 4, 347–350 (1968).
  16. D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Relation between the magnitude of flicker sensation and evoked potential amplitude in man," Perception 2, 61–65 (1973).
  17. B. A. Milner, D. Regan, and J. R. Heron, "Theoretical models of the generation of steady-state evoked potentials, their relation to neuroanatomy and their relevance to certain clinical problems," Adv. Med. Biol. 24, 157–169 (1972).
  18. B. A. Milner, D. Regan, and J. R. Heron, "Differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis by visual evoked potential recording," Brain 97, 755–772 (1974).
  19. H. Spekreijse, L. H. Van der Tweel, and Th. Zuidma, "Contrast evoked responses in man," Vision Res. 13, 1577–1601 (1973).
  20. D. Regan and H. Sperling, "A method of evoking contour–specific scalp potentials by chromatic checkerboard patterns," Vision Res. 11, 173–176 and 1203 (1971).
  21. D. Regan and W. Richards, "Brightness contrast and evoked potentials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 606–611 (1973).
  22. D. Regan, cited p. 29 In S. Sokol, "Visually evoked potential: theory, techniques and clinical applications," Survey Ophthal. 21, 18–44 (1976).
  23. D. Regan, "Assessment of visual acuity by evoked potential recording: possible ambiguity caused by temporal tuning," Vision Res. (to be published).
  24. D. Regan, "Speedy assessment of visual acuity in amblyopia by evoked potential method," Ophthalmologia 175, 159–164 (1977).
  25. D. Regan, "Rapid methods for refracting the eye and for assessing visual acuity in amblyopia, using steady-state visual evoked potentials," in Visual Evoked Potentials in Man, edited by J. E. Desmedt (Clarendon, Oxford, 1977).
  26. D. Regan, "Objective method of measuring the relative spectral luminosity curve in man," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 856–859 (1970).
  27. D. Regan, "Evoked potential and psychophysical correlates of changes in colour and intensity," Vision Res. 9, 163–178 (1970).
  28. D. Regan, "An electrophysiological correlate of colour: evoked response finding and single-cell speculations," Vision Res. 13, 1933–1941 (1973).
  29. D. Regan, "A study of the visual system by the correlation of light stimuli and evoked electrical responses," Thesis, London University (1964).
  30. S. Duke-Elder, System Of Ophthalmology, Vol. 5 (Kimpton, London, 1970).
  31. D. Regan, "Rapid objective refraction using evoked brain potentials," Invest. Ophthal. 12, 669–679 (1973).
  32. D. Regan, "Colour coding of pattern responses in man investigated by evoked potential feedback and direct plot techniques," Vision Res. 15, 175–183 (1975).
  33. H. Spekreijse, L. H. Khoe, and L. H. Van der Tweel, "A case of amblyopia: electrophysiology and psychophysics of luminance and contrast," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 24, 141–144 (1972).
  34. G. B. Arden, "The visual evoked response in ophthalmology," Proc. R. Soc. Med. 66, 1037–1043 (1973).
  35. S. Sokol and B. Bloom, "Visually evoked cortical responses of amblyopes to a spatially alternating stimulus," Invest. Ophthal. 12, 936–939 (1973).
  36. D. Regan and H. Sperling, "A method of evoking contour–specific scalp potentials by chromatic checkerboard patterns," Vision Res. 11, 173–176 and 1302 (1971).
  37. D. Regan, "Electrophysiological evidence for colour channels in human pattern vision," Nature 250, 437–439 (1974).
  38. R. J. Galvin, D. Regan, and J. R. Heron, "Altering body temperature changes visual perception of double light flashes in multiple sclerosis: a possible means of monitoring the progress of demyelination," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 39, 861–865 (1976).
  39. D. Regan, T. J. Murray, and R. Silver, "Effect of body temperature on visual evoked potential delay in multiple sclerosis patients," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. (to be published).
  40. J. R. Heron, D. Regan and B. A. Milner, "Delay in visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy after retrobulbar neuritis," Brain 97, 83–92 (1974).
  41. (a) D. Regan, B. A. Milner, and J. R. Heron, "Delayed visual perception and delayed evoked potentials in the spinal form of multiple sclerosis and in retrobulbar neuritis," Brain 99, 43–66 (1976). (b) A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, "Delayed visual responses in optic neuritis," Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).
  42. A. M. Halliday, M. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, "Delayed pattern-evoked responses in optic neuritis in relation to visual acuity," Trans. Ophthal. Soc. U. K. 93, 315–324 (1973).
  43. P. Assleman, D. W. Chadwick, and D. D. Marsden, "Visual evoked responses in the diagnosis and management of patients suspected of multiple sclerosis," Brain 98, 261–282 (1975).
  44. J. M. Cappin and S. Nissim, "Pattern visual evoked responses in the detection of field defects in glaucoma," Archiv. Ophthal. N. Y. 93, 9–18 (1975).
  45. W. I. McDonald, "Pathophysiology in multiple sclerosis," Brain 97, 179–196 (1974).
  46. M. Feinsod and W. F. Hoyt, "Subclinical optic neuropathy in multiple sclerosis," J. Neurol. Neurosurg, Psychiat. 38, 1109–1114 (1975).
  47. M. Feinsod, O. Abramsky and E. Auerbach, "Electrophysiological examinations of the visual system in multiple sclerosis," J. Neurol. Sci. 20, 161–175 (1973).
  48. D. Regan, "Latencies of evoked potentials to flicker and to pattern speedily estimated by simultaneous stimulation method," Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 40, 654–660 (1976).
  49. D. Regan, and J. R. Heron, "Clinical investigation of lesions of the visual pathway: a new objective technique," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 32, 479–483 (1969).
  50. D. Regan and R. F. Cartwright, "A method of measuring the potentials evoked by simultaneous stimulation of the left and right half-fields," Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 314–319 (1970) and 36, 547–550 (1974).
  51. D. Regan and J. R. Heron, "Simultaneous recording of visual evoked potentials from the left and right hemispheres in migraine," in Background to Migraine (Heinemann, London, 1970), pp. 66–77.
  52. D. Regan and B. A. Milner, "Objective perimetry by evoked potential recording: limitations," Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol, in press.
  53. D. Regan, "Evoked potentials specific to spatial patterns of luminance and colour," Vision Res. 13, 2381–2402 (1973).
  54. A. M. Halliday and W. F. Michael, "Changes in pattern-evoked responses in man associated with the vertical and horizontal meridians of the visual field," J. Physiol. 208, 499–513 (1970).
  55. D. A. Jeffreys and J. G. Axford, "Source location of pattern-specific componenst of human visual evoked potentials I & II," Exp. Brain Res. 16, 1–21 and 22–40 (1972).
  56. W. F. Michael and A. M. Halliday, "Differences between the occipital distributions of upper and lower half-field pattern-evoked responses in man," Brain Res. 32, 311–324 (1971).
  57. D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, "Evoked potential indications of colour blindness," Vision Res. 14, 89–95 (1974).
  58. D. Regan, "Evoked potentials to changes in chromatic contrast," Trace 6, 22–28 (1972).
  59. D. Regan, "Parallel and sequential processing of visual information in man: investigation by evoked potential recording," in Photophysiology, Vol. 8 (Academic, New York, 1973), pp. 185–208.
  60. D. Regan, "Evoked potentials to changes in chromatic contrast," Advances Med. Biol. 24, 171–187 (1972).
  61. O. Estevez, H. Spekreijse, T. J. T. P. VanderBerg, and C. R. Cavonius, "The spectral sensitivities of isolated human colour mechanisms determined from contrast evoked potential measurements," Vision Res. 15, 1205–1212 (1973).
  62. B. Tansley and A. Valberg, "Chromatic border distinctness: hue and saturation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).
  63. H. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Red-green cone interactions in the increment threshold spectral sensivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).

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