OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 67, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 1977
  • pp: 213–220

Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes

Vivianne C. Smith and Joel Pokorny  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 67, Issue 2, pp. 213-220 (1977)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.67.000213


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1007 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Protanopes and deuteranopes do not accept the classical dichromatic matches when field size extends to 8° visual angle. Their unique matches of spectral yellow to a mixture of red and green are then mediated by the photoreceptors of small-field dichromacy interacting with a photoreceptor with the spectral sensitivity of rhodopsin. Our data suggest that large-field trichromacy is a general feature of protanopia and deuteranopia.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

Citation
Vivianne C. Smith and Joel Pokorny, "Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 213-220 (1977)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-67-2-213


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, 1924).
  2. D. B. Judd, "Colour perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 41, 247–271 (1948).
  3. C. H. Graham, H. G. Sperling, Y. Hsia, and A. H. Coulson, "The determination of some visual functions of a unilateral color-blind subject: methods and results," J. Psychol. 51, 3–32 (1961).
  4. F. H. G. Pitt, "Characteristics of Dichromatic Vision," Med. Res. Council Spec. Rep. No. 200 H.M.S.O. (1935).
  5. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats. I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1937).
  6. See R. M. Boynton and H. Scheibner, "On the perception of red by 'red blind' observers," Acta Chromatica 1, 205–220 (1967). We used such explanations with dichromatic observers.
  7. W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische fovea, trichromatische peripherie," Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnes 39, 93–101 (1905).
  8. W. A. Nagel, "Neue Erfahrungen über das Farbensehen der Dichromaten auf grossen Felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907).
  9. W. A. Nagel, "Farbenstimmung beim Dichromaten," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 5–17 (1910).
  10. W. Jaeger and K. Kroker,"Über das verhalten der protanopen und deuteranopen bei grossen reizflächen," Klin MBL. Augenheilk. 121, 445–449 (1952).
  11. H. M. O. Scheibner and R. M. Boynton, "Residual red-green discrimination in dichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1151–1158 (1968).
  12. J. D. Moreland and W. B. Young, "A new anomaloscope employing interference filters," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 47–55 (1974).
  13. J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Effect of field size on redgreen color mixture equations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
  14. A. Linksz, An Essay on Color Vision (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964).
  15. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  16. K. H. Ruddock, "Parafoveal colour vision responses of four dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 143–156 (1971).
  17. D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).
  18. M. Alpern, "What is it that confines in a world without color? Invest. Ophthal. 13, 648–674 (1974).
  19. F. J. J. Clarke, "Needs and Prospects for a tetrachromatic system of large field colorimetry," in Colour 73, Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of the I. C. A, at York, 1973 (Wiley, New York, 1973), pp. 319–324.
  20. p. W. Trezona, "The tetrachromatic colour match as a colorimetric technique, "1 Vision Res. 13, 9–25 (1973).
  21. G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1970), pp. 199–259.
  22. G. H. Jacobs, "Color vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 27, 63–89 (1976).
  23. J. J. McCann and J. L. Benton, "Interaction of the longwave cones and rods to produce color sensations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 103–107 (1969).
  24. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Chromatic rod-cone interaction," Vision Res. 14, 1389–1392 (1974).
  25. T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
  26. The suggestion that spatial and temporal border transients could explain our data was first made by D. I. A. MacLeod at the annual meeting of A.R.V.O. in 1976.
  27. We attempted to evaluate the effects of border transients in two additional ways. We constructed an 8° field stop with a 2° black bar. The 2° bar prevents an observer from making direct comparisons across the test-field border. With this test field, discrimination deteriorated. However, protanopes SY and CB and deuteranopes DK and MM continued to reject the neutral point match of 494 nm to a mixture of 450 and 650 nm. Their red-green matches for wavelengths 570, 589, and 610 nm widened, similar to those for one-thousand-fold reduction in field luminance (Fig. 7). Our second approach was to defocus the field so that the border was invisible. Again, discrimination was reduced, but not to the same degree as with the 2° bar separating the test and mixture fields.
  28. G. L. Walls and G. B. Heath, "Typical total colour blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthal. 32, 253–297 (1954).
  29. L. Sloan, "The photopic retinal receptors of the typical achromat," Am. J. Ophthal. 46, 81–86 (1958).
  30. M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, "The enigma of typical total monochromacy," Am. J. Ophthal. 50, 326–341 (1960).
  31. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and R. Swartley, "Threshold measurements of spectral sensitivity in a blue monocone monochromat," Invest. Ophthal. 9, 807–813 (1970).
  32. M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Maaseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone monochromacy," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 212, 211–233 (1971).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited