Optical systems including holographic optical elements and Fresnel gratings can be designed with ordinary lens optimization computer codes. Holographic elements are represented as lenses with very large indices of refraction and very small curvatures. As the index approaches infinity, the model becomes exact. General design parameters and image quality of holograms on both planar and spherical surfaces are discussed.
© 1977 Optical Society of America
William C. Sweatt, "Describing holographic optical elements as lenses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 803-808 (1977)