OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 68, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 1978
  • pp: 197–205

Analysis of lanthanide atomic spectra: Present state and trends

J. F. Wyart  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 68, Issue 2, pp. 197-205 (1978)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1062 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



After a review of the present state of classification in atomic spectra of lanthanides, the regular evolution of various atomic features along the sequence is traced and supplemented by new examples in the energy differences between configurations, coupling schemes, and energy parameters. This leads to the first “generalized-least-squares” study in the lanthanides, for 4ƒN6p configurations in third spectra.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

J. F. Wyart, "Analysis of lanthanide atomic spectra: Present state and trends," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 197-205 (1978)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gnielin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363 (1972).
  2. J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of the singly ionized rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1286–1290 (1965).
  3. J. Reader and J. Sugar, "Ionization energies of the neutral rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189–1194 (1966).
  4. J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths," J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
  5. W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, "Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).
  6. L. Brewer, "Energies of the electronic configurations of the lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1101–1111 (1971); "Energies of the electronic configurations of the singly, doubly and triply ionized lanthanides and actinides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1666–1682 (1971).
  7. W. C. Martin, "Energy differences between two spectroscopic systems in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized lanthanide atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1682–1686 (1971).
  8. W. C. Martin, "Some aspects of the energy level structures of lanthanide atoms and ions," Opt. Pura Appl. 5, 181–191 (1972).
  9. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Fourth śpectrum of lutetium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).
  10. K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, "Relative energies of the lowest levels of the ƒqpS2, ƒqds2 and ƒq+1S2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).
  11. F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph," Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).
  12. J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
  13. C. Moore-Sitterly, "The present state of atomic spectra," Opt. Pura Appl. 2, 103–113 (1969).
  14. N. Spector and J. Sugar, "Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 436–438 (1976).
  15. W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, "Table of spectral line intensities," Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).
  16. J. F. Wyart, "Interprétation du spectre de Dyi. I. Etude des configurations impaires," Physica (Utrecht) 75, 371–385 (1974).
  17. J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, "Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling," Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).
  18. J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).
  19. P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, "Etude des spectres d'émission dans l'infrarouge par l'emploi d'un SISAM. II. Spectre d'émission du thulium, " Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).
  20. J. Blaise, J. F. Wyart, R. Hoekstra, and P. J. G. Kruiver, "Present state of the analysis of Ndi and Ndii," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1335–1342 (1971).
  21. Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Spectroscopic and Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, edited by F. Bloch (Wiley, New York, 1968).
  22. J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrès récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d + 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4ƒN5d des spectres II," Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).
  23. J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).
  24. B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, "Intraatomic magnetic interactions for ƒ electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).
  25. S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, "Contribution à l'interpretation des configurations 4ƒ26S, 4ƒ25d et 4ƒ26p de Pr III," Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).
  26. H. M. Crosswhite, "Effective operators for two inequivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. A 4, 485 (1971).
  27. J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrés récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d+6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations," Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).
  28. Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Proceedings of the 5th Conference of European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, Lund, 1973 (unpublished).
  29. P. Camus and J. Sugar, "Etude théorique et interprétation des configurations électroniques de Tm II," Phys. Scr. 4, 257–268 (1971).
  30. Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).
  31. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo-ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
  32. H. M. Crosswhite, "Spectroscopie des éléments de transition et des éléments lourds dans les solides," in Proceedings of the CNRSInternations Colloquim, Lyon, 1976, in press (C.N.R.S, Paris, 1977).
  33. A. Carlier, "Contribution à l'étude théorique des spectres d'arc et d'étincelle du samarium," Thèse de Doctorat (3ème cycle), Orsay (1967).
  34. J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, "The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium," J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).
  35. G. Racah, "Theory of complex spectra. IV," Phys. Rev. 76, 1352–1365 (1949).
  36. E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, p. 193 in The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1935).
  37. N. Spector, "Les niveaux 4ƒ11(4I15/2)5d, 6p de l'holmium une fois ionisè," Phys. Scr. 13, 181–183 (1976).
  38. N. Spector, "New odd levels of neutral erbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 576–577 (1965).
  39. N. Spector, "Level structure of doubly ionized erbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 358–361 (1973).
  40. J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, "The configuration 4ƒ116p in the lanthanide spectra," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).
  41. Y. Shadmi, J. Oreg, and J. Stein, "Effective interactions between d electrons in the second spectra of the iron group," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 909–914 (1968).
  42. J. Sugar and N. Spector, "Spectrum and energy levels of doubly ionized europium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1484–1497 (1974).
  43. J. Sugar, "The third spectrum of praseodymium (PrIII) in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 73, 333–381 (1969).
  44. W. J. Childs, "Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); C. Bauche-Arnoult, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).
  45. P. Camus, "Structure hyperfine des niveaux pairs 4ƒ125d6S2 +4 ƒ136s6p de Tm I," J. Phys. (Paris) 33, 749–754 (1972).
  46. P. Camus, J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).
  47. Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, "Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La I," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).
  48. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium," J. Opt. Soo. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).
  49. V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, "Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).
  50. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hfv," Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited