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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 68, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 1978
  • pp: 1118–1124

Control of film characteristics by modulating intensity and space

George W. Batten, Jr. and Robert L. Everett  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 68, Issue 8, pp. 1118-1124 (1978)

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Usually, images and other signals are recorded on photographic media using either density modulation, as in ordinary photographs, or spatial pulse modulation, as in halftone image reproduction. This paper presents an analysis of a modulation technique that combines density and spatial modulation. It is shown that the technique studied can provide a large class of average-transmittance functions. This class includes linear, power, and logarithmic functions. Design formulas for screens that give these functions are derived. It is shown that the average-transmittance function of films exposed through a screen of this design is independent dependent exposure range.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

George W. Batten, Jr. and Robert L. Everett, "Control of film characteristics by modulating intensity and space," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1118-1124 (1978)

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  1. A. W. Lohmann, and H. W. Werlich, "Spatial Pulse Modulation," Appl. Opt. 10, 2743–2753 (1971).
  2. John W. Wesner, "Screen Patterns in Reproduction of Continuous- Tone Graphics," Appl. Opt. 13, 1703–1710 (1974).
  3. Hisatoya Kato and J. W. Goodman, "Nonlinear transformations and logarithmic filtering in coherent optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1306A (1973); Opt. Commun. 8, 378–381 (1973).
  4. Hisatoyo Kato and J. W. Goodman, "Nonlinear Filtering in Coherent Optical Systems Through Halftone Screen Processes," Appl. Opt. 14, 1813–1824 (1975).
  5. J. W. Goodman and H. B. Strubin, "Increasing the Dynamic Range of Coherent Optical Filters by Means of Modulating Gratings," Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 23, 1024A (1972).
  6. S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Optical Synthesis of Nonlinear Nonmonotonic Functions," Opt. Communr. 15, 66–70 (1975).
  7. T. C. Strand, "Non-Monotonic Nonlinear Image Processing Using Halftone Techniques," Opt. Commun. 15, 60–65 (1975).
  8. Hua-Kuang Liu and J. W. Goodman, "A New Coherent Optical Psuedo-Color Encoder," Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 286–289 (1976).
  9. H. K. Liu, J. W. Goodman, and J. L-H. Chan, "Equidensiometry by Coherent Optical Filtering," Appl. Opt. 15, 2394–2399 (1976).
  10. S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Nonlinear Optical Processing: Effects of Input Medium and Precompensation," Appl. Opt. 16, 2279–2287 (1977).
  11. Robert L. Everett, "Synthesis of average film transfer functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1113–1118 (1978).
  12. G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, and G. Polya, Inequalities (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1959).

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