OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 68, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 1978
  • pp: 1257–1271

Resonant optoacoustic cells for trace gas analysis

E. Kritchman, S. Shtrikman, and M. Slatkine  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 68, Issue 9, pp. 1257-1271 (1978)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.68.001257


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1801 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

An analysis of the ultimate detectivity of ideal optoacoustic cells, based on viscous gas equations, gives rigorous expressions for both signal and noise for a one-dimensional optoacoustic cell. Choice of boundary conditions for the noise calculations is dictated by the dissipation fluctuation theorem. Results of noise equivalent power calculations indicate superior performances near dc frequencies over those obtained at resonant conditions. A simplifying dissipative acoustic transmission line model describing optoacoustic cells of quite general geometric configurations is developed that is particularly useful for noise evaluation. In contrast to ideal cells, current optoacoustic cells’ detectivities are practically limited by interfering signals induced by windows’ absorption of infrared radiation; acoustical resonant conditions can help reduce such interference. A resonant optoacoustic cell exhibiting high immunity to windows interference is described that yields two orders of magnitude interference reduction compared with previously operated optoacoustic cells. The cell uses the longitudinal modes of a narrow open tube. Its minimum detectable concentration of ethylene in nitrogen is less than 0.3 parts in 109 for 1 Hz detection bandwidth using a I W, 10.5326 µm CO2 laser beam. Electronic noise limits the detectivity, and is ~15 dB higher than the expected Brownian noise of an ideal cell of the same configuration. Measurements with flowing trace gas are given.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

Citation
E. Kritchman, S. Shtrikman, and M. Slatkine, "Resonant optoacoustic cells for trace gas analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1257-1271 (1978)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-68-9-1257


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. L. B. Kreuzer, "Ultra Low Gas Concentration Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy." J. Appi. Phys. 42, 2934 (1971).
  2. G. Diebold and D. L. McFadden, "Observation of the Optoacoustic Effect in the Microwave Region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 447 (1976).
  3. P. C. Claspy, Chang Ha, and Yoh-Han Pao, "Application of a Pulsed Dye Laser to Optoacoustic Detection of NO2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1072 (1976).
  4. A. G. Bell, Philos. Mag. 11, 510, (1881).
  5. W. C. Röntgen, Philos. Mag. 11, 308 (1881).
  6. J. Tyndall, Proc. R. Soc. London, 31, 307 (1881).
  7. K. F. Luft, Z. Tech. Phys. 24, 97–104 (1943).
  8. D. W. Hill and T. Powell, Non-Lispersive Infrared Gas Analysis in Science, Medicine and Industry (Plenum, New York, 1968).
  9. M. L. Veingerov, Dokl. Akad, Nauk SSSR 46, 182 (1945).
  10. E. L. Kerr and J. G. Atwood, "The Laser Illuminated Absorptivity Spectrophone: A Method for Measurement of Weak Absorptivity in Gases at Laser Wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 7, 915 (1968).
  11. L. B. Kreuzer, N. D. Kenyon, and C. K. N. Patel, "Sensitive Detection of Ten Pollutant Gases by Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide Lasers," Science 177, 347 (1972).
  12. L. B. Kreuzer, "Measurements of Concentration of Components of Gaseous Mixtures," U. S. Patent No. 3,820,901 (June 28, 1974).
  13. C. K. N. Patel, E. G. Burkhardt, and C. A. Lambert, "Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric Nitric Oxide and Water Vapor," Science 184, 1173 (1974).
  14. C. K. N. Patel, "Spectroscopic Measurements of the Stratosphere using Tunable Infrared Lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 145–154 (1976).
  15. L. G. Rosengren, Infrared Phys. 13, 109 (1973); 13, 173 (1973).
  16. L. G. Rosengren, E. Max, and S. T. Eng, "A Study of Laser Acoustic Air Pollution Monitors," J. Phys. Sci. Instrum. 7, 125 (1974).
  17. E. Max and L. G. Rosengren, "Characteristics of a Resonant Optoacoustic Gas Concentration Detector," Opt. Commun. 11, 422 (1974).
  18. L. G. Rosengren, "Optimal Optoacoustic Detector Design," Appl. Opt. 14, 1960 (1975).
  19. T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, and T. W. Walker, "Absorption Coefficient Measurements of Nitrous Oxide and Methane at DF Laser Wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975).
  20. C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, and C. E. Hackett, "Acoustic Amplifiers for Detection of Atmospheric Pollutants," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).
  21. Roger D. Kamm, "Detection of Weakly Absorbing Gases using a Resonant Optoacoustic Method," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3550 (1976).
  22. P. D. Goldan and Kenya Gato, "An Acoustically Resonant System for Detection of Low Level Infrared Absorption in Atmospheric Pollutants," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4350 (1974).
  23. R. T. Menzies and M. S. Shumate, "Optoacoustic Measurements Measurements of Water Vapor Absorption at Selected CO Laser Wavelengths in the 5 µm Region," Appl. Opt. 15, 2023 (1976).
  24. M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, J. S. Margolis, and L. G. Rosengren, "Water Vapor Absorption of Carbon Dioxide Laser Radiation," Appl. Opt. 15, 2480 (1976).
  25. W. Schnell and G. Fischer, "Detection of Air Pollutants with a CO2 Laser," Z. Angew, Math. Phys. 26, 133 (1975).
  26. G. L. Trusty, "Absorption Measurements of the 10.4 Micron Region using a CO2 Laser and a Spectrophone," OSU Report 2819–2, AD907599 (1973).
  27. W. Schnell and G. Fisher, "Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Coefficients of Various Air Pollutants," Appl. Opt. 14, 2058 (1975).
  28. P. C. Claspy, Y. H. Pao, S. Kwong, and E. Nodov, "Laser Optoacoustic Detection of Explosive Vapors," Appl. Opt. 15, 1506 (1976).
  29. J. G. Parker, "Optical Absorption in Glass: Investigations Using an Acoustic Technique," Appl. Opt. 12, 2974 (1973).
  30. H. B. Callen and T. A. Welton, "Irreversibility and Generalized Noise," Phys. Rev. 83, 34 (1951).
  31. M. J. G. Golay, "Theoretical Consideration in Heat and Infrared Detection, with Particular Reference to the Pneumatic Detector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 18, 347 (1947).
  32. M. J. Golay, "The Theoretical and Practical Sensitivity of the Pneumatic Infrared Detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 20, 816 (1949).
  33. P. M. Morse and K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 6.
  34. R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, and R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Oxford University, New York, 1968).
  35. L. E. Kinsler and A. R. Frey, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, New York, 1962).
  36. Attention is drawn to the fact that Eq. (4.1) can be conveniently used to calibrate optoacoustic cells. This method lacks many drawbacks to the usual method of calibration which is based on careful production of preknown concentrations.
  37. P. L. Kelley, R. A. McClatchy, R. K. Long, and A. Snelson, "Molecular Absorption of Infrared Laser Radiation in the Natural Atmosphere," Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 177 (1976).
  38. E. H. Kennard, Kinetic Theory of Gases (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1938).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited