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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 70, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1980
  • pp: 66–70

Phase selectivity of spatial frequency channels

Robert Michael Jones and Ulker Tulunay-Keesey  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 70, Issue 1, pp. 66-70 (1980)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.70.000066


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Abstract

The phase selectivity of spatial frequency channels was measured, using an adaptation technique. Subjects first adapted to a grating of a given spatial frequency; subsequent threshold measurements were made at various spatial frequencies and phase shifts. Changes in the phase relationship between the test and adaptation gratings due to eye movements were circumvented by viewing the gratings through an image stabilization apparatus. Local retinal adaptation was minimized by using an adaptation grating whose contrast flickered sinusoidally as a function of time. We were able to demonstrate channel-like frequency tuning for all conditions studied, but the threshold elevations following adaptation were always independent of the phase shift between the test and adaptation gratings. Our results imply that the channels which are selectively tuned to spatial frequency are not selectively tuned to spatial phase.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

Citation
Robert Michael Jones and Ulker Tulunay-Keesey, "Phase selectivity of spatial frequency channels," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 66-70 (1980)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-70-1-66


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References

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  16. The luminance distribution across the grating can be expressed as L(x) = L0{1 + m(cos2πƒtt) [cos2π(ƒxx + ø]} where L0 is the average luminance, m the modulation or contrast, ƒt the flicker frequency, ƒx the spatial frequency, and ø is the spatial phase angle.
  17. R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Local Retinal Adaptation and Spatial Frequency Channels," Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).
  18. Although the temporal average luminance of each point on the flickering grating is the same, uneven retinal adaptation could result from the light and dark portions of the pattern, which immediately precede the end of the adaptation period. This effect is minimized at a higher flicker frequency, because the time duration without contrast alternation preceding the end of the adaptation period is reduced.
  19. V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting Afterimages Caused by Neural Adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).
  20. Virsu and Laurinen used gratings whose contrast varied as a square wave, while ours flickered sinusoidally. They studied only very low spatial frequencies (<0.25 cpd), whereas we used 1.5, 3, or 6 cpd. Our display has a green phosphor (P31) while Virsu and Laurinen's is white (P4). Our display has a frame rate of 500 Hz, while theirs is 50 Hz. With a flickering grating the temporal average luminance across the screen differed from the mean by less than 1% for our display and by 3.6% for theirs. None of these differences in display units seem likely to account for the large differences in after-image duration.

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