An integral-equation approach is developed to compute the propagation coefficients and field distributions of the modes of an open cylindrical waveguide surrounded by a vacuum. The general theory applies to arbitrary graded-index profiles and arbitrarily shaped cross sections. Lossy and uniaxially anisotropic media, with longitudinal extraordinary axis, are included. To investigate the accuracy of the method, we have implemented the integral-equation method for a lossless symmetrical slab waveguide with step- and graded-index profile. Results are given for isotropic and anisotropic waveguides of the indicated kind. The permittivity profiles considered are step-index and two different quadratic profiles.
© 1980 Optical Society of America
H. M. de Ruiter, "Integral-equation approach to the computation of modes in an optical waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1519-1524 (1980)