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Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 70, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 1980
  • pp: 197–212

Vector model for normal and dichromatic color vision

S. Lee Guth, Robert W. Massof, and Terry Benzschawel  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 70, Issue 2, pp. 197-212 (1980)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.70.000197


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Abstract

The inclusion of cone mechanisms in a slightly revised version of an earlier model allows accounts of phenomena that involve receptor effects as well as dichromatic color vision. Intensity-dependent parameters that simulate the adaptation of receptors and opponent and nonopponent mechanisms are varied to predict a wide range of data for both normals and dichromats, including: (i) color matching; (ii) the approximate apparent hue and saturation of the spectrum; (iii) foveal spectral sensitivities obtained by flicker photometry and by detection in the dark and under conditions of achromatic or chromatic adaptation; (iv) heterochromatic additivity failures in the dark-adapted and chromatically adapted eye; (v) approximate differences between brightness and luminance; and, (vi) color and wavelength discrimination under varying adaptation conditions.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

Citation
S. Lee Guth, Robert W. Massof, and Terry Benzschawel, "Vector model for normal and dichromatic color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 197-212 (1980)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-70-2-197


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References

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  11. For computational purposes, we actually used equations that transform CIE x, y, and z values to Judd's x′, y′, and z′ values. The equations, from J. J. Vos, Color Res. Applic. 3, 125–128 (1978), are x′ = 1.0271 x - 0.00008 y - 0.00009/03845 x + 0.01496 y + 1, y′ =0.00376 x + 1.0072 y + 0.00764/0.03845 x + 0.01496 y + 1, z′= 1-x′-y′. To convert the derived chromaticity coordinates to distribution coefficients, we scaled them to make y¯′ equal to CIE y¯ at 460 nm and above. Below 460 nm, we used Judd's y¯′ at 10-nm intervals and linearly interpolated between those points.
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  37. In the earlier description of the model, we incorrectly predicted the copunctal point for "loss" deuteranopes who lack the G receptor as well as the T system. The error was caused by a failure to remember that the defining equations were for observers who had all three receptors. That prediction would be correct only for "fusion" deuteranopes who also lack the T system, but who have normal R and G receptor inputs to the remaining A and D mechanisms. It may, of course, be that there exist both loss and fusion deuteranopes, but we here consider only the loss class. See D. B. Judd, "Fundamental studies of color vision from 1860 to 1960," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 55, 1313–1330 (1966).
  38. See second reference in Ref. 8.
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