Polarization, penetration, and exchange effects in the hydrogenlike nf and ng terms of cesium
JOSA, Vol. 71, Issue 4, pp. 423-433 (1981)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.71.000423
Acrobat PDF (1489 KB)
Abstract
We have made precision measurements of the 4ƒ-ng transitions (n = 5-11) of cesium observed in emission by using high-resolution Fourier spectroscopy. The ^{2}G fine-structure intervals are found to have normal ordering and a slightly greater than hydrogenic splitting. Each of the ^{2}F and ^{2}G series of levels can be represented by a polarization formula, but the effective dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities derived from the two series differ widely. By a series of calculations using Hartree-Fock wave functions, we show that penetration and core-valence exchange effects, which are neglected in the polarization formula, contribute up to 20% of the departure from the hydrogenic nƒ term value. To a good approximation this explains the observed discrepancy in polarizabilities. The effective polarizabilities we obtained are compared with values measured by other experimental techniques. The role of nonadiabatic effects in limiting the accuracy and utility of polarizabilities derived from spectral data is discussed. Based on our ^{2}G data and the best available values for the ^{2}S and ^{2}F levels, we find the Cs I ionization energy to be 31406.4556(20) cm^{-1}.
© 1981 Optical Society of America
Citation
Craig J. Sansonetti, Kenneth L. Andrew, and J. Verges, "Polarization, penetration, and exchange effects in the hydrogenlike nf and ng terms of cesium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 423-433 (1981)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-71-4-423
Sort: Year | Journal | Reset
References
- K. Bockasten, "A study of C IV: term values, series formulae, and Stark effect," Ark. Fys. 10, 567–582 (1956).
- P. Risberg, "A revision of the term systems for Na I and K I based on hollow cathode observations," Ark. Fys. 10, 583–606 (1956).
- K. Bockasten, "Polarizability of Mg^{+2} derived from hydrogen-like terms of Mg II," Phys. Rev. 102, 729–730 (1956).
- K. Bockasten, "Polarization formula for the ^{2}F-series of Cs I," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1065 (1964).
- U. Litzén, "The 5g levels of the alkali metals," Phys. Scr. 1, 253–255 (1970).
- C. B. Ross, D. R. Wood, and P. S. Scholl, "Series limit and hydrogen like series in Pb II," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 36–39 (1976).
- C. H. H. Van Deurzen, "Analysis of 4-ionized vanadium (V v)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 476–480 (1977).
- B. Edlén, "Atomic spectra," in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1964), Vol. XXVII.
- K. B. S. Eriksson and I. Wenåker, "New wavelength measurements in Cs I," Phys. Scr. 1, 21–24 (1970).
- H. J. Kleiman, "Interferometric measurements of cesium I," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 441–447 (1961).
- R. W. Shorthill and G. R. Fowles, "Interferometric measurements of isotope shifts in mercury II and mercury III with enriched isotopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 459 (1958).
- C. J. Sansonetti and K. L. Andrew, "Improved determinations of the n ^{2}D and n ^{2}F fine-structure intervals in neutral cesium," Phys. Rev. A 22, 1370–1374 (1980).
- M. Born and W. Heisenberg, "Über den Einfluss der Deformierbarkeit der lonen auf optische und chemische Konstanten," Z. Phys. 23, 388–410 (1924).
- J. E. Mayer and M. G. Mayer, "The polarizabilities of ions from spectra," Phys. Rev. 43, 605–611 (1933).
- We refer to the polarizabilities derived from spectral data as effective polarizabilities because they may differ from the static polarizabilities of the ion core because of nonadiabatic effects in the atom. This is discussed in greater detail in Section 5.
- K. Bockasten, "Mean values of powers of the radius for hydrogpnic electron orbits," Phys. Rev. A 9, 1087–1089 (1974).
- A. Fröman, J. Linderberg, and Y. Öhrn, "Penetration effe. in the ^{2}F-series of Cs I," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1064–1065 (1964).
- H. Eissa and U. Öpik, "The polarization of a closed-shell core of an atomic system by an outer electron: I. A correction to the adiabatic approximation," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 92, 556–565 (1967).
- E. J. Kelsey and L. Spruch, "Retardation effects on high Rydberg states: a retarded R^{-5} polarization potential," Phys. Rev. A 18, 15–25 (1978).
- U. Öpik, "The polarization of a closed-shell core of an atomic system by an outer electron: II. Evaluation of the polarizabilities from observed spectra," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 92, 566–576 (1967).
- D. C. Griffin, R. D. Cowan, and K. L. Andrew, "Instabilities in the iterative solution of the Hartree-Fock equations for excited electrons," Phys. Rev. A 3, 1233–1242 (1971).
- R. D. Cowan and J. B. Mann, "Stabilization of solution of the Hartree-Fock equations," J. Comput. Phys. 16, 160–166 (1974).
- R. D. Cowan and D. C. Griffin, "Approximate relativistic corrections to atomic radial wavefunctions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1010–1014 (1976).
- K. B. Eriksson, I. Johansson, and G. Norlén, "Precision wavelength measurements connecting the Cs I 6s, 6p, and 6d levels, with a study of the correction for phase change in infrared interferometry," Ark. Fys. 28, 233–238 (1964).
- J. R. Tessman, A. H. Kahn, and W. Shockley, "Electronic polarizabilities of ions in crystals," Phys. Rev. 92, 890–895 (1953).
- H. Coker, "Empirical free-ion polarizabilities of the alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, and halide ions," J. Phys. Chem. 80, 2078–2084 (1976).
- K. A. Safinya, T. F. Gallagher, and W. Sandner, "Resonance measurements of ƒ-h and ƒ-i intervals in cesium using selective and delayed field ionization," Phys. Rev. A 22, 2672–2678 (1980).
- R. R. Freeman and D. Kleppner, "Core polarization and quantum defects in high-angular-momentum states of alkali atoms," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1614–1619 (1976).
Cited By |
Alert me when this paper is cited |
OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.
« Previous Article | Next Article »
OSA is a member of CrossRef.