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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 71, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 1981
  • pp: 737–743

Projection photolithography by wave-front conjugation

M. D. Levenson, K. M. Johnson, V. C. Hanchett, and K. Chiang  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 71, Issue 6, pp. 737-743 (1981)

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Conjugate wave-front generation by degenerate four-wave mixing has been employed to project images with submicrometer features onto photoresist-coated substrates. The developed patterns demonstrate a resolution of >800 line pairs per millimeter for 413-nm illumination, consistent with theoretical expectations. The patterns are not degraded by speckle or edge enhancement, and the magnification is within 0.1% of unity. Focusing is accomplished by a novel interferometric procedure.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

M. D. Levenson, K. M. Johnson, V. C. Hanchett, and K. Chiang, "Projection photolithography by wave-front conjugation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 737-743 (1981)

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  1. For an up-to-date review, see the special issue of IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 1319–1725 (August 1980).
  2. B. J. Lin, "Optical methods for fine line lithography," in Fine Line Lithography, R. Newman, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 107–230.
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