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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 71, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 1981
  • pp: 737–743

Projection photolithography by wave-front conjugation

M. D. Levenson, K. M. Johnson, V. C. Hanchett, and K. Chiang  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 71, Issue 6, pp. 737-743 (1981)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.71.000737


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Abstract

Conjugate wave-front generation by degenerate four-wave mixing has been employed to project images with submicrometer features onto photoresist-coated substrates. The developed patterns demonstrate a resolution of >800 line pairs per millimeter for 413-nm illumination, consistent with theoretical expectations. The patterns are not degraded by speckle or edge enhancement, and the magnification is within 0.1% of unity. Focusing is accomplished by a novel interferometric procedure.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

Citation
M. D. Levenson, K. M. Johnson, V. C. Hanchett, and K. Chiang, "Projection photolithography by wave-front conjugation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 737-743 (1981)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-71-6-737


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References

  1. For an up-to-date review, see the special issue of IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 1319–1725 (August 1980).
  2. B. J. Lin, "Optical methods for fine line lithography," in Fine Line Lithography, R. Newman, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 107–230.
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  11. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 7.
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  13. J. D. Cuthbert, Solid State Technol. 20, 59–69 (1977).
  14. J. J. Amodei, W. Phillips, and D. L. Staebler, "Improved electrooptic materials and fixing techniques for holographic recording," App. Opt. 11, 390–396 (1972).
  15. A. Krumins and P. Günter, "Diffraction efficiency and energy transfer during hologram formation in reduced KNbO3," Appl. Phys. 19, 153–163 (1979).
  16. J. P. Huignard et al., "Speckle free imaging in four wave mixing experiments with Bi12SiO20 crystals," Opt. Lett. 5, 436–437 (1980).

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