OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 71, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 1981
  • pp: 1124–1133

Study of surface roughness using a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs of surface replicas: I. Surface profiles

Monique Rasigni, Georges Rasigni, Jean-Pierre Palmari, and Antoine Llebaria  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 71, Issue 9, pp. 1124-1133 (1981)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.71.001124


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1565 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A new method for studying surface roughness is presented that uses a microdensitometer to analyze electron micrographs of shadowed surface replicas. First we give a preliminary description of the replication technique and the microdensitometer analysis. Then we proceed to show that the micrograph density (or transmittance) is approximately proportional to the slope of the surface elements, which enables us to determine the surface profile by integration of the microdensitometer data. Bidimensional and monodimensional median-filtering algorithms are used in the data reduction, and their validity is analyzed. With the help of a computer program that plots a perspective view of rough surfaces, we find that a close approach to the real profiles is obtained. This shows that our method may have other important applications in addition to the study of alterable metallic surfaces.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

Citation
Monique Rasigni, Georges Rasigni, Jean-Pierre Palmari, and Antoine Llebaria, "Study of surface roughness using a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs of surface replicas: I. Surface profiles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1124-1133 (1981)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-71-9-1124


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. H. Davies, "The reflection of electromagnetic waves from rough surfaces," Proc. IEEE 101, 209–214 (1954).
  2. E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrel, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130–139 (1960).
  3. H. E. Bennett and J. O. Porteus, "Relation between surface roughness and specular reflectance at normal incidence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123–129 (1961).
  4. J. O. Porteus, "Relation between the height distribution of a rough surface and the reflectance at normal incidence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1394–1402 (1963).
  5. H. E. Bennett, "Specular reflectance of aluminized ground glass and the height distribution of surface irregularities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1389–1394 (1963).
  6. P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).
  7. D. W. Berreman, "Anomalous reststrahl structure from slight surface roughness," Phys. Rev. 163, 855–864 (1967).
  8. J. Crowell and R. H. Ritchie, "Surface plasmon effect in the reflectance of a metal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 794–799 (1970).
  9. J. G. Endriz and W. Spicer, "Study of aluminum films. I. Optical studies of reflectance drops and surface oscillations on controlled roughness films," Phys. Rev. B 134, 4144–4158 (1971); "Study of aluminum films. II. Photoemission studies of surface plasmon oscillation on controlled roughness films," Phys. Rev. B 134, 4159–4184 (1971).
  10. T. F. Gesell, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, and R. N. Hamm, "Optical and photoelectric properties of Mg in the vacuum ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. B 7, 5141–5146 (1972).
  11. A. J. Braundmeier and D. G. Hall, "Some measurements of the angular distribution and polarization of surface plasmon radiation from Ag films," Surf. Sci. 49, 376–392 (1975).
  12. H. Raether, "Surface plasma oscillations and their applications," in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 9, Georg Hass, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), pp. 145–261.
  13. J. M. Elson and R. H. Ritchie, "Photon-surface plasmon coupling at a dielectric solid," Phys. Lett. 33A, 255–256 (1970); "Photon interactions at a rough metal surface," Phys. Rev. B 4, 4129–4138 (1971); "Diffuse scattering and surface-plasmon generation by photons at a rough dielectric surface," Phys. Status Solidi B 62, 461–468 (1974).
  14. P. Dobberstein, "Coupling between light and surface plasma-waves via non Gaussian surface roughness," Phys. Lett. 31A, 307–308 (1969).
  15. J. M. Bennett, "Measurement of the rms roughness, autocovariance function and other statistical properties of optical surfaces using a F.E.C.O. scanning interferometer," Appl. Opt. 15, 2705–2721 (1976).
  16. J. M. Elson and J. M. Bennett, "Relation between the angular dependence of scattering and the statistical properties of optical surfaces," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31–47 (1979).
  17. R. J. Wagner, "Shadowing of randomly rough surfaces," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 138–147 (1966).
  18. J. C. Hardin, "Theoretical analysis of rough-surface shadowing from point-source radiation," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 52, 227–233 (1971).
  19. M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, C. T. Hua, and J. Pons, "Determination of the surface structure autocorrelation function for rough deposits of magnesium," Opt. Lett. 1, 126–127 (1977).
  20. M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, "Surface structure autocorrelation functions and their Fourier transforms for rough deposits of magnesium," Phys. Rev. B 19, 1915–1919 (1978).
  21. M. Rasigni, J. P. Palmari, and G. Rasigni, "Addendum to: Surface structure autocorrelation functions and their Fourier transforms for rough deposits of magnesium," Phys. Rev B 22, 4092–4093 (1980).
  22. M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, J. P. Palmari, and A. Llebaria, "Surface plasmon and autocorrelation function for rough surfaces of silver deposits," Phys. Rev. B 23, 527–531 (1981).
  23. M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, "Experimental study of the optical absorption and structure of very thin lithium deposits," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1033–1036 (1972).
  24. G. Rasigni and M. Rasigni, "Plasma resonance in granular deposits and rough surfaces of magnesium," Phys. Rev. B 12, 1121–1131 (1975).
  25. A. Llebaria, "Digitized microdensitometer and processing data system" (unpublished).
  26. C. Magnan, Traité de Microscopie Électronique (Hermann, Paris, 1961).
  27. N. Digby, K. Firth, and R. J. Hercock, "The photographic effect of medium energy electrons," J. Photogr. Sci. 1, 194–208 (1953).
  28. J. F. Hamilton and J. C. Marchant, "Image recording in electron microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 232–239 (1967).
  29. H. F. Premsela, J. M. Nievwenhuizen, and B. Schotanus, "Photographic techniques for electron microscopy. Basic principles and practice," Philips Industries, Scientific and Industrial Equipment Division, Electron Optics Group, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (not dated), p. 14.
  30. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), pp. 437 and 503.
  31. T. S. Huang, G. J. Yang, and G. Y. Tang, "A fast two-dimensional median filtering algorithm," IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. ASSP-27, 13–18 (1979).
  32. J. A. Bush, D. K. Cohen, K. D. Scherkoska, and S. O. Sari, "Measurement of roughness-induced wavelength correction to the surface-plasmon resonance in silver," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1020–1023 (1980).
  33. J. L. Stanford, "Determination of surface-film thickness from shift of optically excited surface plasma resonance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 49–53 (1970).
  34. L. J. Cunningham and A. J. Braundmeier, Jr., "Measurement of the correlation between the specular reflectance and surface roughness of Ag films," Phys. Rev. B 14, 479–483 (1976).
  35. E. Kretschmann, "Decay of non radiative surface plasmon into light on rough silver films. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results," Opt. Commun. 6, 185–187 (1972).
  36. D. L. Hornauer, "Light scattering experiments on silver films of different roughness using surface plasmon excitation," Opt. Commun. 16, 76–79 (1976).
  37. W. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 307–309.
  38. G. Rasigni, M. Rasigni, and J. P. Palmari, "Reflectance drops and surface plasmons on different roughness deposits of magnesium," Phys. Rev. B 14, 4235–4238 (1976).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited