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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 72, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 1982
  • pp: 1692–1697

Optical coefficients of single-crystal and amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures and at 6328 Å

D. Goldschmidt  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 72, Issue 12, pp. 1692-1697 (1982)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.72.001692


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Abstract

The refractive index and extinction coefficient of single-crystal and for the first reported time amorphous germanium have been measured at the He-Ne wavelength in the temperature range 25–400°C by using the pseudo-Brewster method. The vacuum reflectometer is described, and the correction method for the surface oxide layer is outlined. The results are shown to be consistent with the expected shift of room-temperature spectra with increasing temperature. On this basis it was concluded that the gross features of the high-temperature spectra may be obtained from the room-temperature spectra together with high-temperature measurements at only a few preselected energies.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

Citation
D. Goldschmidt, "Optical coefficients of single-crystal and amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures and at 6328 Å," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1692-1697 (1982)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-72-12-1692


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References

  1. D. Goldschmidt, "Amorphous germanium as a medium temperature solar selective absorber," Thin Solid Films 90, 139–143 (1982).
  2. G. Baderscher, R. P. Salathe, and H. P. Weber, "Dynamics of laser crystallization in amorphous Ge films," Appl. Phys. 25, 91–93 (1981).
  3. M. R. Baklanov, K. K. Svitashev, L. V. Semenenko, and V. K. Sokolov, "Temperature dependence of the optical characteristics of germanium at 6328 Å," Opt. Spektrosk. 39, 362–366 (1975) [Opt. Spectrosc. 39, 205–207 (1975)].
  4. R. F. Potter, "Analytical determination of optical constants based on the polarized reflectance at a dielectric-conductor interface," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 904–906 (1964).
  5. R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of germanium in spectral region from 0.5 eV to 3.0 eV," Phys. Rev. 150, 562–567 (1966).
  6. R. F. Potter, "Reflectometer for determining optical constants," Appl. Opt. 4, 53–57 (1965).
  7. E. Schmidt, "Simple method for the determination of optical constants of absorbing materials," Appl. Opt. 8, 1905–1908 (1969). Schmidt's technique has been shown to be identical with the p.B. technique: R. F. Potter, "Pseudo-Brewster angle and the optical constants," Appl. Opt. 9, 1717–1718 (1970).
  8. Consists of: 5 HF(48%): 10 HNO3 (70%): 30-mg iodine dissolved in 11 CH3COOH(97%). H. C. Gatos and M. C. Lavine, "Chemical behaviour of semiconductors: etching characteristics," in Progress in Semiconductors, A. F. Gibson and R. E. Burgess, eds. (Temple, London, 1965), Vol. 9, pp. 1–45. This etchant was preferred relative to the more roughening CP4.
  9. D. Goldschmidt, "The optical properties of amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures and their application to the conversion of solar energy into heat," Ph.D. thesis (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, 1981), Sec. 3.2, p. 67.
  10. R. J. Archer, "Optical constants of germanium: 3600 Å to 7000 Å," Phys. Rev. 110, 354–358 (1958).
  11. G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, and W. Paul, "Amorphous germanium III: optical properties," Adv. Phys. 22, 643–665 (1973).
  12. T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, and J. A. Ashley, "Optical properties of amorphous germanium films," Phys. Rev. B 2, 397–413 (1970).
  13. M. Cardona and H. S. Sommers, "Effect of temperature and doping on the reflectivity of germanium in the fundamental absorption region," Phys. Rev. 122, 1382–1388 (1961).
  14. Potter's as well as Archer's reconstructed K were obtained from the spectra given by R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of opaque semiconductors," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 7, 293–299 (1970).
  15. D. Goldschmidt, "Temperature dependence of the refractive index dispersion in amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures," Phys. Rev (to be published).
  16. Ref. 9, pp. 181, 183.
  17. J. Tauc, "Optical properties of amorphous semiconductors," in Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, J. Tauc, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974), Chap. 4.
  18. Ref. 9, Sec. 4.2.2., p. 120.
  19. The spectral shape in the vicinity of 2.1 eV depends on the amount of impurity; see Ref. 13.
  20. H. R. Philipp and H. Ehrenreich, "Ultraviolet optical properties," in Optical Properties of III- V Compounds, R. K. Wilardson and A. C. Beer, eds., S. C. and S. M. series (Academic, New York, 1967), Chap. 4.
  21. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 40.
  22. Ref. 9, App. 4C, p. 162.

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