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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 72, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1982
  • pp: 352–355

Reflectors and immersion lenses for detectors of diffuse radiation

M. E. Marhic, M. D. Kotzin, and A. P. van den Heuvel  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 72, Issue 3, pp. 352-355 (1982)

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The possibility of using reflectors or immersion lenses to enhance the output of detectors of diffuse (homogeneous and isotropic) radiation encountered in scatter communication systems is examined. Reflectors can yield no optical gain, whereas immersion lenses can provide gain equal to n2, where n is the index of refraction of the immersion medium. The conditions necessary to approach this theoretical maximum are examined from the point of view of geometrical optics. The general conclusions are verified by computer simulations for the spherical geometry. Experiments have been performed with spherical and hemispherical immersion lenses, thus confirming the theoretical predictions.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

M. E. Marhic, M. D. Kotzin, and A. P. van den Heuvel, "Reflectors and immersion lenses for detectors of diffuse radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 352-355 (1982)

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  1. F. R. Gfeller and U. Bapst, "Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation," Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
  2. M. D. Kotzin, "Short-range communication using diffusely scattered infrared radiation," Ph.D. Thesis (Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 1981).
  3. The terminology adopted here is sufficiently descriptive for our purpose. The discussion, however, could be carried out by using a number of standard radiometric quantities, such as those discussed by J. F. Snell, in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Sec. 1.
  4. W. T. Welford and R. Winston, The Optics of Nonimaging Concentrators (Academic, New York, 1978).
  5. A. Rabl, "Comparison of solar concentrators," Sol. Energy 18, 93–111 (1967).
  6. F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), Chap. 9.
  7. E. Hecht and A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), p. 246.
  8. The curve of Fig. 3 does not yield G = 1 as RD approaches RS, as one would expect on physical grounds, because it is based on a geometrical-optics calculation that breaks down when the dielectric is just a few wavelengths thick. This fact is without consequence here, however, as we are interested in relatively thick dielectric coatings.
  9. C. F. Gramm, in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 2, p. 353.

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