A statistical approach is taken toward the ray optics of optical media with complicated nonspherical and nonplanar surface shapes. As a general rule, the light in such a medium will tend to be randomized in direction and of 2n2(x) times greater intensity than the externally incident light, where n(x) is the local index of refraction. A specific method for doing optical calculations in statistical ray optics will be outlined. These optical enhancement effects can result in a new type of antireflection coating. In addition, these effects can improve the efficiency as well as reduce the cost of solar cells.
© 1982 Optical Society of America
Eli Yablonovitch, "Statistical ray optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 899-907 (1982)