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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 73, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 1983
  • pp: 1665–1673

Eye movements and neural remapping during fusion of misaligned random-dot stereograms

Michael T. Hyson, Bela Julesz, and Derek H. Fender  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 73, Issue 12, pp. 1665-1673 (1983)

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Fender and Julesz [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 819 (1967)] found that fused retinally stabilized binocular line targets could be misaligned on the two retinas in the temporalward direction by at least 30 min of arc without loss of fusion and stereopsis and that random-dot stereograms could be misaligned 2 deg before fusion was lost. To test these results in normal vision, we recorded eye motions of four observers while they viewed a random-dot stereogram that subtended about 10 deg. The observers misaligned overlaid vectograph stereo images by moving them apart in a temporalward direction until fusion was lost. They then returned the vectographs to the overlaid position. Throughout this cycle the observers reported at frequent intervals if they could perceive strong or weak depth, loss of depth, or loss of fusion. For some observers the image separation could be increased to 5 deg beyond parallel before fusion was lost. The visual axes diverged to follow the image centers and varied from overconverged to overdiverg d with respect to the image centers while the observers still reported depth and fusion. We call the difference between the image separation and eye vergence the yergence error. If a vergence error persisted for at least 10 sec without loss of the percepts of fusion and depth, we postulate that neutral remapping occurred that compensated for the retinal misalignment. We found that the average maximum neural remapping was 3.0 deg. The neural remapping was greater at loss of fusion than at regaining fusion. This phenomenon corresponds to the hysteresis measured by Fender and Julesz. We obtained an average hysteresis value of 2.6 deg with a maximum value of 4.1 deg. The average value is somewhat larger than the value reported by Fender and Julesz; this might result from our use of larger targets. We recorded many vergence saccades, in both the convergent and divergent directions, associated with scanning the target. Refusion occurred after the images were briefly aligned on the retinas by a pair of vergence sac ades. These saccades were initiated when the vergence error returned to the value that it had when fusion was lost, and the magnitude of the divergent saccade was such that the vergence error was reduced to zero. This may imply retention of the position of correspondence that spanned a period of nearly 1 min between loss and restoration of fusion.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

Michael T. Hyson, Bela Julesz, and Derek H. Fender, "Eye movements and neural remapping during fusion of misaligned random-dot stereograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1665-1673 (1983)

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  19. Three of our observers seldom experienced fusion without the percept of depth. The remaining observer did have this percept, but we did not record the differential thresholds for loss of the depth percept and loss of fusion.
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  24. Our attention has recently been drawn to R. A. Crane and S. Hardjowijoto, "What is normal binocular vision?" Doc. Ophthalmol. 47.1, 163–199 (1979). These authors measured the disparity between nonius lines when viewing fused random-dot stereograms through baseout prisms of varying power. They show a horizontal extension of Panum's fusional area to a maximum of about 4°. The data we present agree with this figure and adds some information on the dynamics of the fusional process.

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