OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 73, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1983
  • pp: 332–338

Convergence accommodation

Daniel Kersten and Gordon E. Legge  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 73, Issue 3, pp. 332-338 (1983)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (870 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Steady-state accommodation responses were measured in both eyes as a function of vergence angle and direction of lateral gaze. The measurements were made with a binocular laser optometer. Small speckle patterns were used as fusional stimuli in an otherwise dark field. These patterns have the advantage of providing no blur stimulus to accommodation. Convergence accommodation for vergence angles ranging from 0 to 25 deg was measured for lateral- gaze angles of +32, -32, and 0 deg. The average accommodation of the two eyes was linearly related to vergence angle over the observer's accommodative range but was independent of the angle of lateral gaze. The mean convergence accommodation/convergence ratio for three subjects, in diopters per meter-angle, was 0.9. Our measurements of convergence accommodation using laser-speckle targets are in good agreement with previous studies that used small pupils. Accommodation responses for binocular viewing of letters of a Snellen chart were also measured. When luminance was educed, night myopia was observed. No similar effect was found for convergence accommodation. Accommodation to a dim target corresponded closely to the convergence accommodation.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

Daniel Kersten and Gordon E. Legge, "Convergence accommodation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 332-338 (1983)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. H. W. Hofstetter, "The zone of clear single binocular vision: Part I," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 22, 301–333 (1945).
  2. F. C. Donders, On the Anomalies of Accommodation and Refraction of the Eye (New Sydenham Society, London, 1864).
  3. G. A. Fry, "Skiametric measurement of convergent accommodation," Optom. Weekly 31, 353–356 (1940).
  4. E. F. Fincham, "The proportion of ciliary muscular force required for accommodation," J. Physiol. 128, 99–112 (1955).
  5. M. W. Morgan, "The ciliary body in accommodation and accommodative convergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 31, 219–229 (1954).
  6. E. F. Fincham and J. Walton, "The reciprocal actions of accommodation and convergence," J. Physiol. 137, 488–508 (1957).
  7. P. R. Kent, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 35, 393–406 (1958).
  8. M. H. Balsam and G. A. Fry, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 36, 567–575 (1959).
  9. M. W. Morgan, "Accommodation and vergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417–454 (1968).
  10. M. Alpern, "Vergence movements," in The Eye, 2nd ed., H. Davson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. III, Chap. 5, Sec. VI.
  11. R. J. Miller, "Ocular vergence-induced accommodation and its relation to dark focus," Percept. Psychophys. 28, 125–132 (1980).
  12. H. Ripps, N. B. Chin, I. M. Siegel, and G. M. Breinen, "Effect of pupil size on accommodation, convergence and the AC/A ratio," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 127–135 (1962).
  13. H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).
  14. We measured accommodation responses to speckle targets under monocular viewing conditions as a function of dioptric power of lenses (from +1 to-6 diopters) placed in front of the eye. When accommodation was plotted as a function of lens power, the slope of the line through the data was nearly zero (+0.02).
  15. R. T. Hennessy, "Instrument myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1114–1120 (1975).
  16. G. Westheimer, "Accommodation measurements in empty visual fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 714–718 (1957).
  17. D. A. Owens and H. W. Leibowitz, "Accommodation, convergence, and distance perception in low illuminations," Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 57, 540–550 (1980).
  18. E. F. Fincham, "Accommodation and convergence in the absence of retinal images," Vision. Res. 1, 425–440 (1962).
  19. W. N. Charman, "On the position of the plane of stationarity in laser refraction," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 51, 832–838 (1974).
  20. R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, "Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).
  21. J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975), pp. 9–75.
  22. This allows for the wavelength of the red He–Ne laser light, which is 632.8 nm.
  23. If IPD represents the interpupillary distance in meters, the CA/C ratio in diopters/meter-angle is given by IPD × 57.3 × CA/C/ diopters/deg. However, this is only an approximate equivalence. For large version and vergence angles, dioptric distance in meter-angles is no longer closely proportional to vergence. For asymmetric convergence there is ambiguity because of the differences in the right- and left-eye distances from the fixation point.
  24. F. W. Campbell, "Twilight myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42,925–926 (1953).
  25. D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, "Effect of focus on the visual response to a sinusoidally modulated spatial stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154–1157 (1965).
  26. C. Rashbass and G. Westheimer, "Independence of conjugate and disjunctive eye movements," J. Physiol. 159, 361–364 (1961).
  27. G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "The parasympathetic pathways to internal eye muscles," Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 193–197 (1973).
  28. It should also be pointed out that if all subjects have lines with equal (and perhaps steep) slopes but different intercepts, the averaged data produce a line of smaller slope.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited