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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 73, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1983
  • pp: 617–623

Thermally induced phase-conjugation efficiency and beamquality studies

M. H. Garrett and H. J. Hoffman  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 73, Issue 5, pp. 617-623 (1983)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.73.000617


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Abstract

Aspects of thermally induced nonlinearities in the index of refraction are investigated for the case of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM). An expression for the reflectivity is derived within the framework of a coupled thermodynamic–electromagnetic theory, and some implications for the conjugation efficiency are briefly discussed. We also report on experimental measurements of phase-conjugate reflectivities in excess of 200% at 532 nm and comment on the role of saturation effects and pump delays in obtaining the observed efficiencies. Finally, the results of near-field conjugation beam-quality studies are presented with a view toward examining some of the parameters crucial to conjugation fidelity in typical DFWM experimental setups.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

Citation
M. H. Garrett and H. J. Hoffman, "Thermally induced phase-conjugation efficiency and beamquality studies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 617-623 (1983)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-73-5-617


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References

  1. For reviews on the subject, see, D. M. Pepper, "Nonlinear optical phase conjugation," Opt. Eng. 156–183 (1982); C. R. Giuliano, "Appplications of optical phase conjugation," Phys. Today 34, 27–35 (1981).
  2. M. D. Levenson, K. M. Johnson, V. C. Hanchett, and K. Chiang, "Projection photolithography by wave-front conjugation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 737–743 (1981).
  3. J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Spatial information processing and distortion correction via four-wave mixing," Opt. Eng. 21, 224–230 (1982), and references therein.
  4. G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, "Infrared-to-optical image conversion by Bragg reflection from thermally induced index gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371–373 (1979).
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  7. For a thorough review of this subject see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enns, and D. Pohl, "Stimulated thermal scattering of light," Phys. Status Solidi 48, 11–63 (1971).
  8. H. J. Hoffman, "Thermally induced degenerate-four-wavemixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  9. J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, A. Yariv, and R. K. Jain, "Continuous backward-wave generation by degenerate four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 4, 42–44 (1979).
  10. W. Rother, Z. Naturforsch. 25a, 1120–1135 (1970).
  11. R. C. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
  12. H. Eichler, G. Enterlein, J. Munschau, and H. Stahl, Z. Angew. Phys. 31, 1–4 (1971).
  13. A. Yariv, "Four-wave nonlinear optical mixing as real-time holography," Opt. Commun. 25, 23–25 (1978).
  14. R. L. Abrams and R. C. Lind, "Degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," Opt. Lett. 2, 94–96 (1978).
  15. D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, and A. E. Siegman, "Subnanosecond relaxation time measurements using a transient induced grating method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85–87 (1975).
  16. G. S. Agarwal and E. Wolf, "Theory of phase conjugation with weak scatterers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 321–326 (1982).
  17. D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, and A. Yariv, "Spatial convolution and correlation of optical fields via degeneratefour-wave mixing," Opt. Lett. 3, 7–9 (1978).

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