OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 15, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 1998
  • pp: 340–348

The area of complete scotopic spatial summation enlarges with age

Brooke E. Schefrin, Michelle L. Bieber, Ryan McLean, and John S. Werner  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 15, Issue 2, pp. 340-348 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.15.000340


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (226 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The maximal area of complete scotopic spatial summation (Ricco’s area) was determined for 50 subjects ranging in age from 19 to 87 yr. Increment thresholds were measured for 10-ms, 520-nm circular test lights of varying diameters that were superimposed and concentric with a 10°, 640-nm circular background. The test lights were imaged in Maxwellian view along the horizontal meridian, 6° nasal from a foveal fixation point. The results demonstrate a statistically significant enlargement of Ricco’s area with age. The average angular subtenses of Ricco’s areas for the ten youngest (mean=26 yr) and ten oldest (mean=75 yr) observers were approximately 48 and 69 arc min, respectively. Model simulations based on a series of optical transfer functions of the eye and varying degrees of intraocular light scatter for younger and older observers show that preneural factors cannot account for these results. Therefore changes in neural mechanisms must be invoked to explain the enlargement in the size of Ricco’s area under scotopic conditions.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.0330) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision, color, and visual optics
(330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics
(330.6130) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spatial resolution
(330.7310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision

Citation
Brooke E. Schefrin, Michelle L. Bieber, Ryan McLean, and John S. Werner, "The area of complete scotopic spatial summation enlarges with age," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 340-348 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-15-2-340


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, and D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
  2. J. D. Morrison and C. McGrath, “Assessment of the optical contributions to age-related deterioration in vision,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 70, 249–269 (1985).
  3. A. Ricco, “Relazione fra il minimo angolo visuale e l’intensità luminosa,” Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Lett. Arti Modena 17, 47–160 (1877).
  4. H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,” J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–350 (1958).
  5. M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,” J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).
  6. W. Richards, “Apparent modifiability of receptive fields during accommodation and convergence and a model for size constancy,” Neuropsychologia 5, 63–72 (1967).
  7. A. M. W. Scholtes and M. A. Bouman, “Psychophysical experiments on spatial summation at threshold level of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 17, 867–873 (1977).
  8. I. Lie, “Visual detection and resolution as a function of retinal locus,” Vision Res. 20, 967–974 (1980).
  9. T. Inui, O. Mimura, and K. Kani, “Retinal sensitivity and spatial summation in the foveal and parafoveal regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 151–154 (1981).
  10. K. D. Davila and W. S. Geisler, “The relative contributions of pre-neural and neural factors to areal summation in the fovea,” Vision Res. 31, 1369–1380 (1991).
  11. P. E. Hallett, F. H. C. Marriott, and F. C. Rodger, “The relationship of visual threshold to retinal position and area,” J. Physiol. (London) 160, 364–373 (1962).
  12. V. D. Glezer, “The receptive fields of the retina,” Vision Res. 5, 497–525 (1965).
  13. B. Sakitt, “Configurational dependence of scotopic spatial summation,” J. Physiol. (London) 216, 513–529 (1971).
  14. B. Fischer, “Overlap of receptive field centers and representation of the visual field in the cat’s optic tract,” Vision Res. 13, 2113–2120 (1973).
  15. R. A. Weale, The Senescence of Human Vision (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1992).
  16. V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, and A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
  17. I. E. Loewenfeld, “Pupillary changes related to age,” in Topics in Neuroophthalmology, H. S. Thompson, R. Daroff, L. Frisén, J. S. Glasen, and M. D. Sanders, eds. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1979).
  18. J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
  19. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
  20. R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).
  21. J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
  22. G. Westheimer and J. Liang, “Influence of ocular light scatter on the eye’s optical performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1417–1424 (1995).
  23. J. J. Vos, “Age dependence of glare effects and their significance in terms of visual ergonomics,” in Lighting for Aging Vision and Health, W. Adrian, ed. (Lighting Research Institute, New York, 1995).
  24. H. Gao and J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 1–17 (1992).
  25. C. A. Curcio, C. L. Milican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).
  26. C. A. Curcio and D. N. Drucker, “Retinal ganglion cells in Alzheimer’s disease and aging,” Ann. Neurol. 33, 248–257 (1993).
  27. J. Marshall, J. Grindle, P. L. Ansell, and B. Borwein, “Convolution in human rods: an ageing process,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 63, 181–187 (1979).
  28. J. J. Plantner, H. L. Barbour, and E. L. Kean, “The rhodopsin content of the human eye,” Current Eye Res. 7, 1125–1129 (1988).
  29. A. T. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, and J. van de Kraats, “Rod densitometry in the aging human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 2676–2682 (1991).
  30. F. Vrabec, “Senile changes in the ganglion cells of the human retina,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 49, 561–572 (1965).
  31. C. D. Gilbert and T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive field dynamics in adult primary visual cortex,” Nature (London) 356, 150–152 (1992).
  32. G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
  33. H. Levitt, “Transformed up–down methods in psychoacoustics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1970).
  34. L. T. Sharpe, “The light-adaptation of the human rod visual system,” in Night Vision Basic Clinical and Applied Aspects, R. F. Hess, L. T. Sharpe, and K. Nordby, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990).
  35. E. Pulos, “Changes in rod sensitivity through adulthood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 1738–1742 (1989).
  36. J. F. Sturr, L. Zhang, H. A. Taub, D. J. Hannon, and M. M. Jackowski, “Psychophysical evidence for losses in rod sensitivity in the aging visual system,” Vision Res. 37, 475–481 (1997).
  37. J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
  38. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).
  39. D. V. Norren and J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
  40. B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, M. Plach, N. Utlaut, and E. Switkes, “Sites of age-related sensitivity loss in a short-wave cone pathway,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 355–363 (1992).
  41. P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, and R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
  42. J. Liang and G. Westheimer, “Optical performance of human eyes derived from double-pass measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1411–1416 (1995).
  43. N. Sekiguchi, D. R. Williams, and D. H. Brainard, “Efficiency in detection of isoluminant and isochromatic interference fringes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2118–2133 (1993).
  44. G. Walsh and W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
  45. P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, and D. G. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
  46. D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
  47. R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
  48. M. D’Zmura and P. Lennie, “Shared pathways for rod and cone vision,” Vision Res. 26, 1273–1280 (1986).
  49. P. Lennie and M. D. Fairchild, “Ganglion cell pathways for rod vision,” Vision Res. 34, 477–482 (1994).
  50. U. Gruenert, “Anatomical evidence for rod input to the parvocellular pathway in the visual system of the primate,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 9, 617–621 (1997).
  51. R. F. Hess, “Rod mediated vision: role of post-receptoral filters,” in Night Vision Basic Clinical and Applied Aspects, R. F. Hess, L. T. Sharpe, and K. Nordby, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990).
  52. R. F. Hess, “Spatial and temporal limits of vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 371, 365–385 (1986).
  53. R. F. Hess, “Spatial and temporal properties of human rod vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 371, 387–406 (1986).
  54. A. Ransom-Hogg and L. Spillmann, “Perceptive field size in fovea and periphery of the light- and dark-adapted retina,” Vision Res. 20, 221–228 (1980).
  55. L. Spillmann, A. Ransom-Hogg, and R. Oehler, “A comparison of perceptive and receptive fields in man and monkey,” Hum. Neurobiol. 6, 51–62 (1987).
  56. C. Curcio, University of Alabama at Birmingham, U.A.B. Station, Birmingham, Ala. 35294 (personal communication, 1996).
  57. L. Spillmann and J. S. Werner, “Long-range interactions in visual perception,” TINS 19, 428–434 (1996).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited