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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 16, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 1999
  • pp: 2746–2754

Density of sea surface specular points

David E. Freund and Richard I. Joseph  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 16, Issue 11, pp. 2746-2754 (1999)

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An analytical expression is derived for the number density of sea surface specular points, λρ. Unlike previous results, the present result is not limited to small wave slopes and is valid for arbitrary source and receiver location as well as for arbitrary sea surface displacement. When the source is not in the horizon, it is shown that one immediate outcome from this generalization is that the standard method for obtaining the total number of specular points over the entire (flat) sea surface is invalid. Numerical results are also given for λρ as a function of wind speed and sun elevation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors

Original Manuscript: March 22, 1999
Revised Manuscript: June 16, 1999
Manuscript Accepted: June 16, 1999
Published: November 1, 1999

David E. Freund and Richard I. Joseph, "Density of sea surface specular points," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2746-2754 (1999)

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