The properties of planar-integrated imaging systems are studied on the basis of algebraic ray tracing. A third-order approximation yields analytical expressions for ray aberrations in the image plane. Ray aberrations are compared with the diffraction-limited spot size to estimate optimum system performance from the minimum of the second moment of the point-spread function. We use as a figure of merit the space–bandwidth product of the planar imaging setups. The investigation is restricted to imaging systems consisting of three optical elements.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
Markus Testorf and Jürgen Jahns, "Imaging properties of planar-integrated micro-optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1175-1183 (1999)