OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 17, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2000
  • pp: 1982–1992

Optimal processors for images with an arbitrary number of gray levels

Henrik Sjöberg and Bertrand Noharet  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 17, Issue 11, pp. 1982-1992 (2000)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (644 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a new group of processors, optimal in a maximum-likelihood sense, for target location in images with a discrete number of gray levels. The discrete gray-level distribution can be of any arbitrary form. We compare the performance of the processor derived for five discrete levels with the performance of a processor derived for a continuous Gaussian distribution and show that there are cases when only the processor derived for discrete levels will exhibit satisfactory performance. We give an explanation of this difference based on moment analysis and show how the correlation orders are related to statistical moments of the input scene.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.4550) Image processing : Correlators
(100.5010) Image processing : Pattern recognition

Original Manuscript: September 8, 1999
Revised Manuscript: April 13, 2000
Manuscript Accepted: April 13, 2000
Published: November 1, 2000

Henrik Sjöberg and Bertrand Noharet, "Optimal processors for images with an arbitrary number of gray levels," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1982-1992 (2000)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Réfrégier, “Filter design for optical pattern recognition: multicriteria optimization approach,” Opt. Lett. 15, 854–856 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Réfrégier, “Optimal trade-off filters for noise robustness, sharpness of the correlation peak, and Horner efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 16, 829–831 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Mahalanobis, B. V. K. Kumar, D. Casasent, “Minimum average correlation energy filters,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3633–3640 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. V. K. Kumar, “Minimum-variance synthetic discriminant functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1579–1584 (1986). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Javidi, J. Wang, “Optimum filter for detecting a target in multiplicative noise and additive noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 836–844 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. B. Javidi, J. Wang, “Optimum distortion-invariant filter for detecting a noisy distorted target in nonoverlapping background noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2604–2614 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Javidi, A. H. Fazlollahi, P. Willet, P. Réfrégier, “Performance of an optimum receiver designed for pattern recognition with nonoverlapping target and scene noise,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3858–3868 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Javidi, P. Réfrégier, P. Willet, “Optimum receiver design for pattern recognition with nonoverlapping target and scene noise,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1660–1662 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Guerault, P. Réfrégier, “Unified statistically independent region processor for deterministic and fluctuating targets in nonoverlapping background,” Opt. Lett. 23, 412–414 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. F. Goudail, P. Réfrégier, “Optimal detection of a target with random gray levels on a spatially disjoint noise,” Opt. Lett. 21, 495–497 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Goudail, P. Réfrégier, “Optimal and suboptimal detection of a target with random gray levels imbedded in non-overlapping noise,” Opt. Commun. 125, 211–216 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. F. Guerault, P. Réfrégier, “Optimal χ2 filtering method and application to targets and backgrounds with random correlated gray levels,” Opt. Lett. 22, 630–632 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Réfrégier, O. Germain, T. Gaidon, “Optimal snake segmentation of target and background with independent gamma density probabilities, application to speckled and preprocessed images,” Opt. Commun. 137, 382–388 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Sjöberg, F. Goudail, P. Réfrégier, “Optimal algorithms for target location in nonhomogeneous images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1–100 (1998).
  15. N. Towghi, B. Javidi, J. Li, “Generalized optimum receiver for pattern recognition with multiplicative, additive, and nonoverlapping background noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1557–1565 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. K. Kang, J. S. Powell, R. D. Stack, C. G. Garvin, J. A. Trezza, J. C. Kirsch, B. K. Jones, “Optical image correlation using high-speed multiple quantum well spatial light modulators,” in Optical Pattern Recognition X, D. P. Casasent, T.-H. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE3715, 97–107 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Mahalanobis, B. V. K. Kumar, “Polynomial filters for higher order correlation and multi-input information fusion,” in Optoelectronic Information Processing, Press Monograph PM54, P. Réfrégier, K. Javidi, eds. (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 221–232.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited