OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 18, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 2001
  • pp: 1445–1451

Wavelength dependence of the Stiles–Crawford effect explained by perception of backscattered light from the choroid

Tos T. J. M. Berendschot, Jan van de Kraats, and Dirk van Norren  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 18, Issue 7, pp. 1445-1451 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.18.001445


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (144 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

To explain the wavelength dependence of the directional sensitivity of human foveal cones (Stiles–Crawford I effect) we extended an existing fundus reflectance model for calculation of the total absorption by visual pigment. We took experimental data from literature for both the psychophysical and the optical Stiles–Crawford effect and optimized parameters to fit the experimental data. The wavelength dependence of the Stiles–Crawford effect could be well described with the geometrical optics model. Essential elements are self-screening and the inclusion of backscattered choroidal light for perception.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling
(330.4300) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision system - noninvasive assessment
(330.5310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - photoreceptors
(330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics
(330.7310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision

History
Original Manuscript: July 6, 2000
Revised Manuscript: January 19, 2001
Manuscript Accepted: January 19, 2001
Published: July 1, 2001

Citation
Tos T. J. M. Berendschot, Jan van de Kraats, and Dirk van Norren, "Wavelength dependence of the Stiles–Crawford effect explained by perception of backscattered light from the choroid," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1445-1451 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-7-1445


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933). [CrossRef]
  2. W. S. Stiles, “The luminous sensitivity of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new colour effect,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 123, 90–118 (1937). [CrossRef]
  3. W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and the cones,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 127, 64–105 (1939). [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Enoch, W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Opt. Acta 8, 329–358 (1961). [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. W. Dunnewold, “On the Campbell and Stiles–Crawford effect and their clinical importance,” Ph.D. dissertation (Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1964).
  6. W. Wijngaard, J. van Kruysbergen, “The function of the nonguided light in some explanations of the Stiles–Crawford effect,” in Photoreceptor Optics, A. W. Snyder, R. Menzel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 175–183.
  7. M. Alpern, R. Tamaki, “The saturation of monochromatic lights obliquely incident on the retina,” J. Physiol. 338, 669–691 (1983). [PubMed]
  8. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  9. P. L. Walraven, M. A. Bouman, “Relation between sensitivity and spectral response curves in human cone vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 780–784 (1960). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. L. Walraven, “Directional sensitivity of the cone systems in normals and anomalous color vision,” in Basis and Clinical Applications of Vision Science, V. Lakshminarayanan, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 73–76.
  11. N. D. Miller, “The changes in the Stiles–Crawford effect with high luminance adapting fields,” Am. J. Optom. 41, 599–608 (1964). [CrossRef]
  12. A. W. Snyder, C. Pask, “The Stiles–Crawford effect, explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13, 1115–1137 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. L. Walraven, “Recovery from the increase of the Stiles–Crawford effect after bleaching,” Nature 210, 311–312 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. S. Miller, “Psychophysical estimates of visual pigment densities in dichromats,” Vision Res. 223, 89–107 (1972).
  15. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 221–230 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichomats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465–1476 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors assessed with light scattered from the human fundus,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986). [CrossRef]
  18. S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995). [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique method for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. J. Vos, F. L. van Os, “The effect of lens density on the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Vision Res. 15, 749–751 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 282–289 (2000).
  24. P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Imaging retinal densitometry with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 29, 1825–1830 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Foveal cone mosaic and visual pigment density in dichromats,” J. Physiol. 492, 307–314 (1996). [PubMed]
  28. J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. A. Burns, S. Wu, J. C. He, A. E. Elsner, “Variations in photoreceptor directionality across the central retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2033–2040 (1997). [CrossRef]
  31. J. C. He, S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, “Comparison of cone directionality determined by psychophysical and reflectometric techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2363–2369 (1999). [CrossRef]
  32. S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, “Cone spacing and waveguide properties from cone directionality measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 995–1004 (1999). [CrossRef]
  33. S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, J. C. He, “Model for cone directionality reflectometric measurements based on scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2012–2022 (1998). [CrossRef]
  34. F. C. Delori, K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. S. Smith, M. N. Stein, “Ocular hazards of transscleral laser radiation. I. Spectral reflection and transmission of the sclera, choroid, and retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 21–31 (1968). [PubMed]
  36. A. van Meeteren, C. J. W. Dunnewold, “Image quality of the human eye for eccentric entrance pupils,” Vision Res. 23, 573–579 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited