OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 18, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 2001
  • pp: 2237–2254

Motion of contrast envelopes: peace and noise

Simon J. Cropper and Alan Johnston  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 18, Issue 9, pp. 2237-2254 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.18.002237


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (538 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We examined the effect of changing the composition of the carrier on the perception of motion in a drifting contrast envelope. Human observers were required to discriminate the direction of motion of contrast modulations of an underlying carrier as a function of temporal frequency and scaled (carrier) contrast. The carriers were modulations of both color and luminance, defined within a cardinal color space. Random-noise carriers had either binary luminance profiles or flat (gray-scale–white) or 1/f (pink) spectral power functions. Independent variables investigated were the envelope spatial frequency and temporal-drift frequency and the fundamental spatial frequency, color, and temporal-update frequency of the carrier. The results show that observers were able to discriminate correctly the direction of envelope motion for binary-noise carriers at both high (16 Hz) and low (2 Hz) temporal-drift frequencies. Changing the carrier format from binary noise to a flat (gray-scale) or 1/f amplitude profile reduced discrimination performance slightly but only in the high-temporal-frequency condition. Manipulation of the fundamental frequency of the carrier elicited no change in performance at the low temporal frequencies but produced ambiguous or reversed motion at the higher temporal frequencies as soon as the fundamental frequency was higher than the envelope modulation frequency. We found that envelope motion detection was sensitive to the structure of the carrier.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.0330) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision, color, and visual optics
(330.4150) Vision, color, and visual optics : Motion detection
(330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics
(330.6790) Vision, color, and visual optics : Temporal discrimination

Citation
Simon J. Cropper and Alan Johnston, "Motion of contrast envelopes: peace and noise," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2237-2254 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-9-2237


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. G. B. Henning, B. G. Hertz, and D. E. Broadbent, “Some experiments bearing on the hypothesis that the visual system analyses spatial patterns in independent bands of spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 15, 887–897 (1975).
  2. S. J. Cropper, D. R. Badcock, and A. Hayes, “On the role of second-order signals in the perceived direction of motion of type II plaid patterns,” Vision Res. 34, 2609–2612 (1994).
  3. A. T. Smith and T. Ledgeway, “Second-order motion: the carrier is crucial,” Perception 24, 28a (1995).
  4. A. T. Smith and T. Ledgeway, “Separate detection of moving luminance and contrast modulations: fact or artefact?” Vision Res. 37, 45–54 (1997).
  5. S. J. Cropper and D. R. Badcock, “Perceived direction of motion: It takes all orientations,” Perception 24, 106a (1995).
  6. C. P. Benton and A. Johnston, “First-order motion from contrast modulated noise?” Vision Res. 37, 3073–3078 (1997).
  7. D. R. Badcock and A. M. Derrington, “Detecting the displacement of periodic patterns,” Vision Res. 25, 1253–1258 (1985).
  8. D. R. Badcock and A. M. Derrington, “Detecting the displacements of spatial beats: a monocular capability,” Vision Res. 27, 793–797 (1987).
  9. D. R. Badcock and A. M. Derrington, “Detecting the displacements of spatial beats: no role for distortion products,” Vision Res. 29, 731–739 (1989).
  10. A. M. Derrington and D. R. Badcock, “Separate detectors for simple and complex grating patterns?” Vision Res. 25, 1869–1878 (1985).
  11. A. M. Derrington and D. R. Badcock, “Detection of spatial beats: non-linearity or contrast increment detection?” Vision Res. 26, 343–348 (1986).
  12. A. M. Derrington, D. R. Badcock, and G. B. Henning, “Discriminating the direction of second-order motion at short stimulus durations,” Vision Res. 33, 1785–1794 (1993).
  13. C. Chubb and G. Sperling, “Drift-balanced random stimuli: a general basis for studying non-Fourier motion perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1986–2006 (1988).
  14. Z.-L. Lu and G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35, 2697–2722 (1995).
  15. P. Werkhoven, G. Sperling, and C. Chubb, “The dimensionality of texture-defined motion: a single channel theory,” Vision Res. 33, 463–485 (1993).
  16. T. Ledgeway and A. T. Smith, “The duration of the motion aftereffect following adaptation to first-order and second-order motion,” Perception 23, 1211–1219 (1994).
  17. T. Ledgeway, “Adaptation to second-order motion results in a motion aftereffect for directionally ambiguous test stimuli.,” Vision Res. 34, 2879–2889 (1994).
  18. T. Ledgeway and A. T. Smith, “Evidence for separate motion-detecting mechanisms for first and second-order motion in human vision,” Vision Res. 34, 2727–2740 (1994).
  19. T. Ledgeway and A. T. Smith, “The perceived speed of second-order motion and its dependence on stimulus contrast,” Vision Res. 35, 1421–1434 (1995).
  20. T. Ledgeway and A. T. Smith, “Changes in perceived speed following adaptation to first-order and second-order motion,” Vision Res. 37, 215–225 (1997).
  21. G. J. Burton, “Evidence for non-linear response processes in the human visual system from measurements on the thresholds of spatial beat frequencies,” Vision Res. 13, 1211–1225 (1973).
  22. D. I. A. MacLeod, D. R. Williams, and W. Makous, “A visual non-linearity fed by single cones,” Vision Res. 32, 347–363 (1992).
  23. S. J. Cropper and S. T. Hammett, “Adaptation to motion of a second order pattern: The motion aftereffect is not a general result,” Vision Res. 37, 2247–2259 (1997).
  24. S. J. Cropper, “The detection of luminance and chromatic contrast modulation by the visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1969–1986 (1998).
  25. A. Johnston and C. W. G. Clifford, “Perceived motion of contrast-modulated gratings: predictions of the multi-channel gradient model and the role of full-wave rectification,” Vision Res. 35, 1771–1784 (1995).
  26. A. Johnston, C. P. Benton, and M. J. Morgan, “Concurrent measurement of perceived speed and speed discrimination threshold using the method of single stimuli,” Vision Res. 39, 3849–3855 (1999).
  27. H. R. Wilson and J. Kim, “Perceived motion in the vector-sum direction,” Vision Res. 34, 1835–1842 (1994).
  28. H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrera, and C. Yo, “A psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).
  29. A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).
  30. S. J. Cropper and D. R. Badcock, “Discriminating smooth from sampled motion: chromatic and luminance stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 515–530 (1994).
  31. C. F. I. Stromeyer, A. Chaparro, A. Tolias, and R. E. Kronauer, “Equiluminant settings change markedly with temporal frequency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 36, 962 (1995).
  32. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).
  33. S. J. Cropper and A. M. Derrington, “Detection and motion detection in chromatic and luminance beats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 401–407 (1996).
  34. S. J. Cropper and A. Johnston, “The detection of the motion of chromatic and luminance contrast modulation by the visual system,” manuscript available from the authors.
  35. D. J. Fleet and K. Langley, “Computational analysis of non-Fourier motion,” Vision Res. 34, 3057–3079 (1994).
  36. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).
  37. A. B. Watson, A. Ahumada, and J. E. Farrell, “Window of visibility: a psychophysical theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 300–307 (1986).
  38. A. M. Derrington and G. B. Henning, “Errors in direction-of-motion discrimination with complex stimuli,” Vision Res. 27, 61–75 (1987).
  39. A. M. Derrington and G. B. Henning, “Further observations on errors in direction-of-motion discrimination,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 298 (1987).
  40. J. M. Findlay, “Estimates on probability functions: a more virulent PEST,” Percept. Psychophys. 23, 181–185 (1978).
  41. N. Brady and D. J. Field, “What’s constant in contrast constancy? The effects of scaling on the perceived contrast of bandpass patterns,” Vision Res. 35, 739–756 (1995).
  42. I. Kovacs and A. Feher, “Non-Fourier information in bandpass noise patterns,” Vision Res. 37, 1167–1175 (1997).
  43. J. G. Robson, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity functions of the visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).
  44. A. T. Smith and T. Ledgeway, “Sensitivity to second-order motion as a function of temporal frequency and eccentricity,” Vision Res. 38, 403–410 (1998).
  45. O. I. Ukkonen and A. M. Derrington, “Motion of contrast-modulated grating is analysed by different mechanisms at low and at high contrasts,” Vision Res. 40, 3359–3371 (2000).
  46. I. E. Holliday and S. J. Anderson, “Different processes underlie the detection of second-order motion at low and high temporal frequencies,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 257, 165–173 (1994).
  47. C. Chubb and G. Sperling, “Drift-balanced random stimuli: A general basis for studying non-Fourier motion perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1986–2006 (1988).
  48. S. J. Cropper and A. M. Derrington, “Motion of chromatic stimuli: first-order or second-order?” Vision Res. 34, 49–58 (1994).
  49. S. J. Cropper, K. T. Mullen, and D. R. Badcock, “Motion coherence across cardinal axes,” Vision Res. 36, 2475–2488 (1996).
  50. K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human color vision to red/green and blue/yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).
  51. R. T. Eskew, C. F. Stromeyer III, and R. E. Kronauer, “Temporal properties of the red–green chromatic mechanism,” Vision Res. 34, 3127–3137 (1994).
  52. C. Yo and H. R. Wilson, “Perceived direction of moving two-dimensional patterns depends on duration, contrast and eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 135–147 (1992).
  53. A. Johnston, C. P. Benton, and P. W. McOwan, “Induced motion at texture-defined motion boundaries,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 2441–2450 (1999).
  54. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).
  55. P. Cavanagh, “Attention-based motion perception,” Science 257, 1563–1565 (1992).
  56. B. Hassenstein and W. Reichardt, “Systemtheoretische Analyse der zeitreihenfolgen und vorzeichenauswertung bei der Bewegungspwezeption des Rüssekafers Chlorophanus,” Z. Naturforsch. 11b, 513–524 (1956).
  57. W. Reichardt, “Autocorrelation, a principle for the evaluation of sensory information by the central nervous system,” in Sensory Communication, W. A. Rosenblith, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1961).
  58. D. Marr and S. Ullman, “Directional selectivity and its use in early visual processing,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 211, 151–180 (1981).
  59. A. Johnston, P. W. McOwan, and H. Buxton, “A computational model for the analysis of some first-order and second-order motion patterns by simple and complex cells,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 250, 297–306 (1992).
  60. S. J. Cropper, “Human motion detection: different patterns, different detectors?” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 1992).
  61. A. T. Smith, R. F. Hess, and C. L. Baker, Jr., “Direction identification thresholds for second-order motion in central and peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 506–514 (1994).
  62. A. M. Derrington and M. J. Cox, “Temporal resolution of dichoptic and second-order motion mechanisms,” Vision Res. 38, 3531–3539 (1998).
  63. C. F. Chubb, Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (personal communication, May 2001).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited