OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 20, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2003
  • pp: 974–986

Integration of first- and second-order orientation

Harriet A. Allen, Robert F. Hess, Behzad Mansouri, and Steven C. Dakin  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 20, Issue 6, pp. 974-986 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.20.000974


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (358 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The problem of how visual information such as orientation is combined across space bears on key visual abilities, such as texture perception. Orientation signals can be derived from both luminance and contrast, but it is not well understood how such information is pooled or how these different orientation signals interact in the integration process. We measured orientation discrimination thresholds for arrays of equivisible first-order and second-order Gabors. Thresholds were measured as the orientation variability in the arrays increased, and we estimated the number of samples (or efficiency) and internal noise of the mechanism being used. Observers were able to judge the mean orientation of arrays of either first- or second-order Gabors. For arrays of first-order and arrays of second-order Gabors, estimates of the number of samples used increased as the number of Gabors increased. When judging the orientation of arrays of either order, observers were able to ignore randomly oriented Gabors of the opposite order. If observers did not know which Gabor type carried the more useful orientation information, they tended to use the information from first-order Gabors (even when this was poorer information). Observers were unable to combine information from first- and second-order Gabors, though this would have improved their performance. The visual system appears to have separate integrators for combining local orientation across space for luminance- and contrast-defined features.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.5000) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - patterns and recognition
(330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics
(330.6100) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spatial discrimination
(330.6130) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spatial resolution
(330.7310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision

Citation
Harriet A. Allen, Robert F. Hess, Behzad Mansouri, and Steven C. Dakin, "Integration of first- and second-order orientation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 974-986 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-20-6-974


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).
  2. J. Malik and P. Perona, “Preattentive texture discrimination with early vision mechanisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 923–932 (1990).
  3. H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrera, and C. Yo, “A psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).
  4. C. Chubb and G. Sperling, “Drift-balanced random stimuli: a general basis for studying non-Fourier motion perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1986–2007 (1988).
  5. N. Graham, J. Beck, and A. Sutter, “Nonlinear processes in spatial-frequency channel models of perceived texture segregation—effects of sign and amount of contrast,” Vision Res. 32, 719–743 (1992).
  6. A. A. Baloch, S. Grossberg, E. Mingolla, and C. A. M. Nogueira, “Neural model of first-order and second-order motion perception and magnocellular dymanics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 953–978 (1999).
  7. Y. X. Zhou and C. L. Baker, “Spatial properties of envelope-responsive cells in area 17 and 18 neurons of the cat,” J. Neurophysiol. 75, 1038–1050 (1996).
  8. Z. Lu and G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35, 2697–2722 (1995).
  9. A. Johnston and C. W. G. Clifford, “Perceived motion of contrast-modulated gratings—predictions of the multichannel gradient model and the role of full-wave rectification,” Vision Res. 35, 1771–1783 (1995).
  10. P. W. McOwan and A. Johnston, “A second-order pattern reveals separate strategies for encoding orientation in two-dimensional space and space-time,” Vision Res. 36, 425–430 (1996).
  11. L. M. Lin and H. R. Wilson, “Fourier and non-Fourier pattern discrimination compared,” Vision Res. 36, 1907–1918 (1996).
  12. R. van der Zwan and P. Wenderoth, “Mechanisms of purely subjective contour tilt aftereffects,” Vision Res. 35, 2547–2557 (1995).
  13. S. Smith, P. Wenderoth, and R. van der Zwan, “Orientation processing mechanisms revealed by the plaid tilt illusion,” Vision Res. 41, 483–494 (2001).
  14. S. Smith, C. W. G. Clifford, and P. Wenderoth, “Interaction between first- and second-order orientation channels revealed by the tilt illusion: psychophysics and computational modeling,” Vision Res. 41, 1057–1071 (2001).
  15. P. V. McGraw, D. M. Levi, and D. Whitaker, “Spatial characterististics of the second-order visual pathway revealed by positional adaptation,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 479–484 (1999).
  16. R. F. Hess, T. Ledgeway, and S. Dakin, “Impoverished second-order input to global linking in human vision,” Vision Res. 40, 3309–3318 (2000).
  17. H. Ashida, A. E. Seiffert, and N. Osaka, “Inefficient visual search for second-order motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2255–2266 (2001).
  18. H. A. Allen and A. M. Derrington, “Slow discrimination of contrast-defined expansion patterns,” Vision Res. 40, 735–744 (2000).
  19. R. F. Hess and L. R. Ziegler, “What limits the contribution of second-order motion to the perception of surface shape?” Vision Res. 40, 2125–2133 (2000).
  20. L. R. Ziegler and R. F. Hess, “Stereoscopic depth but not shape perception from second-order stimuli,” Vision Res. 39, 1491–1507 (1999).
  21. S. C. Dakin and R. J. Watt, “The computation of orientation statistics from visual texture,” Vision Res. 37, 3181–3192 (1997).
  22. D. G. Pelli, “Effects of visual noise,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, 1981).
  23. H. B. Barlow, “Increment thresholds at low intensities considered as signal/noise discriminations,” J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469–488 (1957).
  24. A. J. Ahumada and A. B. Watson, “Equivalent-noise model for contrast detection and discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1133–1139 (1985).
  25. D. W. Heeley, H. M. Buchanan Smith, J. A. Cromwell, and J. S. Wright, “The oblique effect in orientation acuity,” Vision Res. 37, 235–242 (1997).
  26. Z. Lu and B. A. Dosher, “External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms,” Vision Res. 38, 1183–1198 (1998).
  27. S. C. Dakin, “An information limit on the spatial integration of local orientation signals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1016–1026 (2001).
  28. D. H. Brainard, “The Psychophysics Toolbox,” Spatial Vision 10, 433–436 (1997).
  29. D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spatial Vision 10, 437–442 (1997).
  30. D. G. Pelli and L. Zhang, “Accurate control of contrast on microcomputer displays,” Vision Res. 31, 1337–1350 (1991).
  31. S. C. Dakin and I. Mareschal, “Sensitivity to contrast modulation depends on carrier spatial frequency and orientation,” Vision Res. 40, 311–329 (2000).
  32. T. Ledgeway and R. F. Hess, “Failure of direction-identification for briefly presented second-order motion stimuli: evidence for weak direction-selectivity of the mechanisms encoding motion,” Vision Res. 42, 1739–1758 (2002).
  33. R. J. Watt and D. Andrews, “APE. Adaptive probit estimation of the psychometric functions,” Curr. Psychol. Rev. 1, 205–214 (1981).
  34. D. H. Foster and W. F. Bischof, “Bootstrap estimates of the statistical accuracy of thresholds obtained from psychometric functions,” Spatial Vision 11, 135–139 (1997).
  35. G. Westheimer, “Simultaneous orientation contrast for lines in the human fovea,” Vision Res. 30, 1913–1921 (1990).
  36. C. D. Gilbert, A. Das, M. Ito, M. Kapadia, and G. Westheimer, “Spatial integration and cortical dynamics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 615–622 (1996).
  37. C. D. Gilbert and T. N. Wiesel, “The influence of contextual stimuli on the orientation selectivity of cells in primary visual cortex of the cat,” Vision Res. 30, 1689–1701 (1990).
  38. D. J. Field, A. Hayes, and R. F. Hess, “Contour integration by the human visual system: evidence for a local ‘association field, ’” Vision Res. 33, 173–193 (1993).
  39. R. F. Hess and S. C. Dakin, “Contour integration in the peripheral field,” Vision Res. 39, 947–959 (1999).
  40. L. Parkes, J. Lund, A. Angelucci, J. A. Solomon, and M. Morgan, “Compulsory averaging of crowded orientation signals in human vision,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 739–744 (2001).
  41. W. H. Mcllhagga and K. T. Mullen, “Contour integration with colour and luminance contrast,” Vision Res. 36, 1265–1279 (1996).
  42. D. J. Field, A. Hayes, and R. F. Hess, “The roles of polarity and symmetry in the perceptual grouping of contour fragments,” Vision Res. 13, 51–66 (2000).
  43. A. T. Smith and N. E. Scott-Samuel, “First-order and second-order signals combine to improve perceptual accuracy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2267–2272 (2001).
  44. M. Edwards and D. R. Badcock, “Global motion perception: no interaction between the first- and second-order motion pathways,” Vision Res. 35, 2589–2602 (1995).
  45. S. C. Dakin, C. B. Williams, and R. F. Hess, “The interaction of first- and second-order cues to orientation,” Vision Res. 39, 2867–2884 (1999).
  46. M. J. Morgan, A. J. S. Mason, and S. Baldassi, “Are there separate first-order and second-order mechanisms for orientation discrimination?” Vision Res. 40, 1751–1763 (2000).
  47. A. J. Schofield and M. A. Georgeson, “Sensitivity to modulations of luminance and contrast in visual white noise: separate mechanisms with similar behaviour,” Vision Res. 39, 2697–2716 (1999).
  48. I. Mareschal, M. P. Sceniak, and R. M. Shapley, “Contextual influences on orientation discrimination: binding local and global cues,” Vision Res. 41, 1915–1930 (2001).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited