OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 21, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2004
  • pp: 901–912

Albertian errors in head-mounted displays: I. Choice of eye-point location for a near- or far-field task visualization

Jannick Rolland, Yonggang Ha, and Cali Fidopiastis  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 901-912 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (502 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A theoretical investigation of rendered depth and angular errors, or Albertian errors, linked to natural eye movements in binocular head-mounted displays (HMDs) is presented for three possible eye-point locations: the center of the entrance pupil, the nodal point, and the center of rotation of the eye. A numerical quantification was conducted for both the pupil and the center of rotation of the eye under the assumption that the user will operate solely in either the near field under an associated instrumentation setting or the far field under a different setting. Under these conditions, the eyes are taken to gaze in the plane of the stereoscopic images. Across conditions, results show that the center of the entrance pupil minimizes rendered angular errors, while the center of rotation minimizes rendered position errors. Significantly, this investigation quantifies that under proper setting of the HMD and correct choice of the eye points, rendered depth and angular errors can be brought to be either negligible or within specification of even the most stringent applications in performance of tasks in either the near field or the far field.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.1400) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - binocular and stereopsis

Original Manuscript: December 4, 2003
Revised Manuscript: February 4, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: February 4, 2004
Published: June 1, 2004

Jannick Rolland, Yonggang Ha, and Cali Fidopiastis, "Albertian errors in head-mounted displays: I. Choice of eye-point location for a near- or far-field task visualization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 901-912 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. P. Rolland, C. Meyer, K. Arthur, E. Rinalducci, “Methods of adjustments versus method of constant stimuli in the quantification of accuracy and precision of rendered depth in head-mounted displays,” Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 11, 610–625 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Cutting, Perception with an Eye for Motion (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986).
  3. J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1984).
  4. W. Robinett, J. P. Rolland, “A computational model for the stereoscopic optics of a head-mounted display,” Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 1, 45–62 (1992).
  5. I. P. Howard, B. J. Rogers, Binocular Vision and Stere-opsis, No. 29 of Oxford Psychologic Series (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995), pp. 591–593.
  6. R. L. Holloway, “Registration errors in augmented reality systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.Car., 1994) (unpublished).
  7. J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 4, 24–49 (1995).
  8. J. Siderov, R. S. Harwerth, “Precision of stereoscopic depth perception from double images,” Vision Res. 33, 1553–1560 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Brewster, “On the law of visible position in single and binocular vision, and on the representation of solid figures by the union of dissimilar plane pictures on the retina,” Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh. 15, 349–368 (1844). [CrossRef]
  10. J. P. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems for stereoscopic depth perception in virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. N. Ogle, P. Boeder, “Distortion of stereoscopic spatial localization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 723–733 (1948). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. N. Ogle, “Spatial localization through binocular vision,” in The Eye (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 4, pp. 409–417.
  13. J. P. Rolland, “Head-mounted displays for virtual environments: the optical interface,” (invited paper), in International Lens Design Conference, Vol. 22 of 1994 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 329–333.
  14. D. S. Goodman, “General principles of geometrical optics,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. 1, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 1.3–1.109.
  15. M. Ye, A. Bradley, L. N. Thibos, X. Zhang, “Interocular differences in transverse chromatic aberration determine chromostereopsis for small pupils,” Vision Res. 32, 1787–1796 (1991). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Simonet, M. C. W. Campbell, “Effect of illuminance on the directions of chromostereopsis and transverse chromatic aberration observed with natural pupils,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 271–279 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. B. Rabbetts, ed., Bennett and Rabbetts’ Clinal Visual Optics, 3rd ed. (Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1998), pp. 220–221.
  18. W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London 112, 428–450 (1933). [CrossRef]
  19. C. Deering, “High resolution virtual reality,” Comput. Graph. 26(2), 195–202 (1992). [CrossRef]
  20. G. A. Fry, Geometrical optics (Chilton book company, Philadelphia, Pa., 1969).
  21. L. Vaissie, J. P. Rolland, “Eye-tracking integration in head-mounted displays,” U.S. patent6,433,760B1 (August13, 2002).
  22. J. P. Rolland, A. Yoshida, L. D. Davis, J. H. Reif, “High-resolution inset head-mounted display,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4183–4193 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. J. P. Rolland, M. Krueger, A. Goon, “Multi-focal planes in head-mounted displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3209–3215 (2000). [CrossRef]
  24. J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays,” in Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality, W. Barfield, T. Caudell, eds. (Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J., 2001), 113–156.
  25. D. B. Diner, D. H. Fender, Human Engineering in Stereoscopic Viewing Devices (Plenum, New York, 1993).
  26. L. Davis, J. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, B. Pettitt, C. Imielinska, “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland: a unique technology enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10–12 (2003). [CrossRef]
  27. K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited