OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 22, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2005
  • pp: 117–125

Wave-front sensing from subdivision of the focal plane with a lenslet array

Richard M. Clare and Richard G. Lane  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 117-125 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (259 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A wave-front sensing scheme based on placing a lenslet array at the focal plane of the telescope with each lenslet reimaging the aperture is analyzed. This wave-front sensing arrangement is the dual of the Shack–Hartmann sensor, with the wave front partitioned in the focal plane rather than in the aperture plane. This arrangement can be viewed as the generalization of the pyramid sensor and allows direct comparisons of this sensor with the Shack–Hartmann sensor. We show that, as with the Shack–Hartmann sensor, when subdividing in the focal plane, the quality of the wave-front estimate is a trade-off between the quality of the slope measurements over each region in the aperture and the resolution to which the slope measurements are obtained. Open-loop simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the lenslet array at the focal plane is equivalent to that of the Shack–Hartmann sensor when no modulation is applied to the lenslet array. However, when the array is modulated in a manner akin to that of the pyramid sensor, subdivision at the focal plane provides advantages when compared with the Shack–Hartmann sensor.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(010.7350) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Wave-front sensing

Original Manuscript: February 8, 2004
Revised Manuscript: June 3, 2004
Published: January 1, 2005

Richard M. Clare and Richard G. Lane, "Wave-front sensing from subdivision of the focal plane with a lenslet array," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 117-125 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. Roddier, “The effect of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), pp. 283–376.
  2. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1998), pp. 135–175.
  3. J. Primot, G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, “Deconvolution from wave-front sensing: a new technique for compensating turbulence-degraded images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1598–1608 (1990). [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. van Dam, R. G. Lane, “Wave-front slope sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1319–1324 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. R. G. Lane, M. Tallon, “Wavefront reconstruction using a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6902–6908 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, “Pyramid wavefront sensor behavior in partial correction adaptive optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).
  9. I. Iglesias, R. Ragazzoni, Y. Julien, P. Artal, “Extended source pyramid wavefront sensor for the human eye,” Opt. Express 10, 419–428 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. F. Roddier, “Curvature sensing and compensation: a new concept in adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1223–1225 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. A. Tyler, D. L. Fried, “Image-position error associated with a quadrant detector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 804–808 (1982). [CrossRef]
  13. B. L. Ellerbroek, D. W. Tyler, “Adaptive optics sky coverage calculations for the Gemini-North telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 165–185 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 63–75.
  15. R. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207–211 (1976). [CrossRef]
  16. N. F. Law, R. G. Lane, “Wavefront estimation at low light levels,” Opt. Commun. 126, 19–24 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. C. M. Harding, R. A. Johnston, R. G. Lane, “Fast simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2161–2170 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. D. L. Fried, “Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogenous medium for very long and very short exposures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1376–1379 (1966). [CrossRef]
  19. B. M. Welsh, C. S. Gardner, “Performance analysis of adaptive-optics systems using laser guide stars and slope sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1913–1923 (1989). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited