OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 23, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2006
  • pp: 2817–2828

Concept for polychromatic laser guide stars: one-photon excitation of the 4 P 3 2 level of a sodium atom

Jean-Paul Pique, Ioana Cristina Moldovan, and Vincent Fesquet  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 23, Issue 11, pp. 2817-2828 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.23.002817


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (234 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

One challenge for polychromatic laser guide stars is to create a sufficiently intense source in the UV. The flux required for the measurement of differential tip–tilt is the main issue that we address. We describe a model that has been validated using on-sky data. We present a method that excites the 4 P 3 2 sodium level using a one-photon excitation at 330 nm . It is more efficient than the two-photon excitation previously suggested since its power slope flux is 3 × 10 4 photons s m 2 W instead of 1.3 × 10 3 photons s m 2 W . This method is very promising both in terms of flux and system simplicity.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence
(020.4180) Atomic and molecular physics : Multiphoton processes
(030.4070) Coherence and statistical optics : Modes
(140.3610) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ultraviolet
(260.2510) Physical optics : Fluorescence

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 3, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: May 10, 2006

Citation
Jean-Paul Pique, Ioana Cristina Moldovan, and Vincent Fesquet, "Concept for polychromatic laser guide stars: one-photon excitation of the 4P3/2 level of a sodium atom," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2817-2828 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-23-11-2817


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinowich, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 370-380 (2003).
  2. D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).
  3. C. d'Orgeville, B. Bauman, J. Catone, B. Ellerbroek, D. Gavel, and R. Buchroeder, "Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302-316 (2002).
  4. J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hilman, and A. Tuffli, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star at Starfire Optical Range," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 278-289 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).
  6. P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. I. S. McLean and S. Adkins, "Instrumentation at the Keck Observatory," in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. F. M. Moorwood, and M. Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 1-12 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Foy and J. P. Pique, "Lasers in astronomy," in Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications, C.E.Webb and J.D. C.Jones, eds. (Institute of Physics, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 2581-2624.
  9. R. Foy, CNRS (personal communication, 2005).
  10. R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).
  11. The term "modeless" was first introduced by P. Ewart in 1985 and then used by K. Bergmann in 1992 because the mode structure of the cavity is canceled (see Ref. ).
  12. J. P. Pique and S. Farinotti, "An efficient modeless laser for a mesospheric sodium laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2093-2101 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, "Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wave front tilt sensing," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910-920 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. C. d'Orgeville and F. Rigaut, Gemini (personal communication, 2005).
  15. M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).
  16. J. Vaillant, E. Thiebaut, and M. Tallon, "ELPOA: data processing of chromatic differences of the tilt measured with a polychromatic laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 308-315 (2000).
  17. G. Mégie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, "Simultaneous nighttime LIDAR measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium," Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27-35 (1978). [CrossRef]
  18. K. H. Kwon, D. C. Senft, and C. S. Gardner, "Lidar observations of sporadic sodium layers at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14199-14208 (1988). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001). [CrossRef]
  20. C. S. Gardner and J. D. Shelton, "Density response of neutral atmospheric layer to gravity wave perturbations," J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1745-1754 (1985). [CrossRef]
  21. C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone, 1973), pp. 25-26.
  22. J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star from the Starfire Optical Range. II. Compensating the pump beam," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 952-964 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000). [CrossRef]
  24. R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).
  25. R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).
  26. R. Foy, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiébaut, J. Vaillant, F. C. Foy, D. Robert, H. Friedman, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, J. P. Gex, A. Mens, A. Migus, J. M. Weulerse, and D. J. Butler, "Photometric observations of a polychromatic laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2236-2242 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 813-824 (1994). [CrossRef]
  28. G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, "Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star," Opt. Commun. 178, 405-409 (2000). [CrossRef]
  29. V. Bellanger, A. Courcelle, and A. Petit, "A program to compute the two-step excitation of mesospheric sodium atoms for the Polychromatic Laser Guide Star Project," Comput. Phys. Commun. 162, 143-150 (2004). [CrossRef]
  30. C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, "20W, CW 589nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope application," Opt. Mater. 26, 507-513 (2004). [CrossRef]
  31. D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.
  32. W. Hackenberg and D. Bonaccini, "Fiber Raman laser development for multiconjugate adaptive optics with sodium laser guide stars," in Adaptive Optics System and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 271-275 (2002).
  33. K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, J. R. Morris, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Duff, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. Valtjen, "Sodium-layer laser-guide-star experimental results," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 825-831 (1994). [CrossRef]
  34. J. Biegert and J. C. Diels, "Feasibility study to ceate a polychromatic guidestar in atomic sodium," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043403/1-11 (2003). [CrossRef]
  35. S. Fournier, "Quelques technologies laser récentes et leurs applications," Photoniques 18, 25-27 (2005).
  36. Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003). [CrossRef]
  37. H. Guillet de Chatellus, I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, and J. P. Pique, "Suppression of the Rayleigh scattering noise in sodium laser guide stars by hyperfine depolarization of the fluorescence,"Opt. Express (to be published).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited