OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 26, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2009
  • pp: 2452–2458

Effects of coherence and polarization on the coupling of stochastic electromagnetic beams into optical fibers

Mohamed Salem and Govind P. Agrawal  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 26, Issue 11, pp. 2452-2458 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (347 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We study the problem of coupling an electromagnetic beam of any state of coherence and polarization into a multimode optical fiber. Using the well-known concept of the cross-spectral density matrix, we derive a general expression for the coupling efficiency of a stochastic electromagnetic beam into a multimode fiber in terms of the cross-spectral density matrix of the incident beam and another matrix representing field distributions of fiber modes. We apply this result to a specific case in which the incident beam belongs to a broad class of so-called electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams and obtain a simple analytical expression for the coupling efficiency in the case of single-mode fibers. We use this expression to study how coupling efficiency depends on the coherence and polarization properties of the incident beam.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

ToC Category:
Coherence and Statistical Optics

Original Manuscript: August 10, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: September 22, 2009
Published: October 27, 2009

Mohamed Salem and Govind P. Agrawal, "Effects of coherence and polarization on the coupling of stochastic electromagnetic beams into optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2452-2458 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. L. C. Cohen, “Power coupling from GaAs injection lasers into optical fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 573-594 (1972).
  2. E. Weidel, “New coupling method for GaAs laser-fibre coupling,” Electron. Lett. 11, 436-437 (1975). [CrossRef]
  3. L. G. Cohen and M. V. Schneider, “Microlenses for coupling junction lasers to optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 89-94 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Sakai and T. Kimura, “Design of miniature lens for semiconductor laser to single-module fiber coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059-1067 (1980). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Saruwatari and T. Sugie, “Efficient laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling using a combination of two lenses in confocal condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021-1027 (1981). [CrossRef]
  6. V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. Vodhanel, D. Bour, and W. Young, “Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Barrell and C. Pask, “Optical fibre excitation by lenses,” Opt. Acta 26, 91-108 (1979). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Lazzaroni and F. Zocchi, “Optical coupling from plane wave to step-index single-mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 237, 37-43 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Wagner and W. Tomlinson, “Coupling efficiency of optics in single-mode fiber components,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2671-2688 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Shaklan and F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2334-2338 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. N. Christodoulides, L. A. Reith, and M. A. Saifi, “Theory of LED coupling to single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1623-1629 (1987). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Chen and D. Kerps, “Coupling efficiency of surface LED's to single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1600-1604 (1987). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Winzer and W. Leeb, “Fiber coupling efficiency for random light and its applications to lidar,” Opt. Lett. 23, 986-988 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Dikmelik and F. Davidson, “Fiber-coupling for free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4946-4952 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Mukhopadhyay, S. Gangopadhyay, and S. Sarkar, “Coupling of a laser diode to monomode elliptic-core fiber via a hyperbolic microlens on the fiber tip: efficiency computation with the ABCD matrix,” Opt. Eng. 46, 025008 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. E. Wolf, Introduction to the Theory of Coherence and Polarization of Light (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).
  17. E. Wolf, “Unified theory of coherence and polarization of random electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Lett. A 312, 263-267 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. E. Wolf, “Correlation induced changes in the degree of polarization, the degree of coherence, and the spectrum of random electromagnetic beams on propagation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1078-1080 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1991), Chap. 2.
  20. B. Rye, “Antenna parameters for incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1390-1398 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. O. Korotkova, M. Salem, and E. Wolf, “The far-zone behavior of the degree of polarization of electromagnetic beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 233, 225-230 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. D. Marcuse, “Gaussian approximation of the fundamental modes of graded-index fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 103-109 (1978). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers (Wiley, 2004).
  24. S. Sarkar, K. Thyagarajan, and A. Kumar, “Gaussian approximation of the fundamental mode in single mode elliptic core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 49, 178-183 (1984). [CrossRef]
  25. L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications, Vol. 99 of SPIE Press Monograph Series (SPIE, 2001). [CrossRef]
  26. G. P. Agarwal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed., (Wiley, 2002). [CrossRef]
  27. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, Vol. PM152 of SPIE Press Monograph Series (SPIE, 1998).
  28. G. N. Watson, A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions, (Cambridge, Univ. Press, 1962).
  29. I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products, 4th ed. (Academic, 1965).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited