OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 26, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 2009
  • pp: 1668–1677

Color rendering of art paintings under CIE illuminants for normal and color deficient observers

João ManuelMaciel Linhares, Paulo DanielAraújo Pinto, and Sérgio MiguelCardoso Nascimento  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 26, Issue 7, pp. 1668-1677 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.26.001668


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (981 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Color rendering indices are used to access the quality of lighting but, in addition to other well-known limitations, are not defined for color deficient observers. We evaluated the quality of lighting for normal and color deficient observers in the context of art paintings by estimating the number of colors they perceive when looking at the paintings. Hyperspectral data from 11 oil paintings were analyzed to compute the number of discernible colors when the paintings were assumed rendered under 55 CIE illuminants. Models of color perception for normal and color deficient observers were applied in the estimates. It was found that the number of discernible colors for normal and color deficient observers had low correlation with traditional color rendering indices and that some three-band illuminants, like HP4, were found to be good for most cases, except for tritanopes. These results suggest that it may be possible to obtain good lighting conditions for normal and color deficient observers with an appropriate choice of the light source.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.1690) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color
(330.1720) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color vision
(330.6180) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spectral discrimination
(110.2945) Imaging systems : Illumination design
(220.2945) Optical design and fabrication : Illumination design
(100.4145) Image processing : Motion, hyperspectral image processing

ToC Category:
Vision, Color, and Visual Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 17, 2008
Revised Manuscript: March 26, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: May 13, 2009
Published: June 24, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
João Manuel Maciel Linhares, Paulo Daniel Araújo Pinto, and Sérgio Miguel Cardoso Nascimento, "Color rendering of art paintings under CIE illuminants for normal and color deficient observers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1668-1677 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-26-7-1668


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, M. Scuello, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, U306-U306 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. R. G. Davis and D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27-38 (1990).
  3. P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, J. A. Carvalhal, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Psychophysical estimation of the best illumination for appreciation of Renaissance paintings,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 669-674 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623-630 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: Why are some illuminants preferred?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 306-311 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, and S. Weintra, “Museum lighting: Optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 121-127 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. CIE, Method of Measuring and Specifying Colour Rendering Properties of Light Sources, CIE Publ. 13.3:1995 (CIE, Vienna, 1995).
  8. CIE, “Colour rendering, TC 1-33 closing remarks,” CIE Publication 135 (1999).
  9. M. R. Pointer, “Measuring colour rendering--a new approach,” Light. Res. Technol. 18, 175-184 (1986). [CrossRef]
  10. C. van Trigt, “Color rendering, a reassessment,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 197-206 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Xu, “Color-rendering capacity of light,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 267-269 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Xu, “Assessing the effectiveness of colour rendering,” Light. Res. Technol. 29, 89 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illuminating Engineering 62, 593-598 (1967).
  14. J. Schanda, “A combined colour preference-colour rendering index,” Light. Res. Technol. 17, 31-34 (1985). [CrossRef]
  15. W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the colour-preference index,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 17, 48-52 (1974).
  16. W. A. Thornton, “Color-discrimination index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 191-194 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192-202 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. F. Martinez-Verdu, E. Perales, E. Chorro, D. de Fez, V. Viqueira, and E. Gilabert, “Computation and visualization of the MacAdam limits for any lightness, hue angle, and light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1501-1515 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 691-700 (2000).
  20. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Congenital color defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 183-241.
  21. L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision, K.R.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 3-51.
  22. J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).
  23. H. Krastel and J. D. Moreland, “Colour vision deficiencies in ophthalmic diseases,” in Inherited and Acquired Colour Vision Deficiencies: Fundamental Aspects and Clinical Studies, D.H.Foster, ed. (Macmillan, 1991), pp. 115-172.
  24. H. Brettel, F. Viénot, and J. D. Mollon, “Computerized simulation of color appearance for dichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2647-2655 (1997). [CrossRef]
  25. P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465-1476 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. CIE, Colorimetry, CIE Publ 15:2004 (CIE, Vienna, 2004).
  27. D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. M. C. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359-2372 (2006). [CrossRef]
  28. M. J. A. T. Carvalhal, “Digitalização de pintura artística com imagiografia hiperespectral,” M.Sc. Thesis (University of Minho, Braga, 2004).
  29. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001). [CrossRef]
  30. M. A. Aldaba, J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, S. M. C. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Visual sensitivity to color errors in images of natural scenes,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 555-559 (2006). [CrossRef]
  31. R. S. Berns, “The science of digitizing paintings for color-accurate image archives: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 45, 305-325 (2001).
  32. M. R. Pointer and G. G. Attridge, “The number of discernible colours,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 52-54 (1998). [CrossRef]
  33. J. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2918-2924 (2008). [CrossRef]
  34. D. B. Judd, “Color perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 41, 247-271 (1948).
  35. D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, “Red-green blindness confined to one eye,” Vision Res. 16, 691-702 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. K. H. Ruddock, “Psychophysics of inherited colour vision deficiencies,” in Inherited and Acquired Colour Vision Deficiencies: Fundamental Aspects and Clinical Studies, D.H.Foster, ed. (Macmillan,1991).
  37. J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125-128 (1978). [CrossRef]
  38. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments,” Vision Res. 12, 2059-2071 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. A. Knowles and H. J. A. Dartnall, “The characterization of visual pigments by absorption spectroscopy,” in The Photobiology of Vision, 2nd ed., H.Davson, ed. (Academic,1997).
  40. G. Thomson, The Museum Environment, 2nd ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1986), p. 308.
  41. J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors perceived by dichromats in natural scenes and the effects of colored lenses,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 493-499 (2008). [CrossRef]
  42. P. Capilla, M. A. Diez-Ajenjo, M. J. Luque, and J. Malo, “Corresponding-pair procedure: a new approach to simulation of dichromatic color perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 176-186 (2004). [CrossRef]
  43. M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2005), p. 385.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited