OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Franco Gori
  • Vol. 31, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2014
  • pp: 1112–1117

Numerical stability issues on channelized Hotelling observer under different background assumptions

Di Ge, Lu Zhang, Christine Cavaro-Ménard, and Patrick Le Callet  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 31, Issue 5, pp. 1112-1117 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (769 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



This paper addresses the numerical stability issue on the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The CHO is a well-known approach in the medical image quality assessment domain. Many researchers have found that the detection performance of the CHO does not increase with the number of channels, contrary to expectation. And to our knowledge, nobody in this domain has found the reason. We illustrated that this is due to the ill-posed problem of the scatter matrix and proposed a solution based on Tikhonov regularization. Although Tikhonov regularization has been used in many other domains, we show in this paper another important application of Tikhonov regularization. This is very important for researchers to continue the CHO (and other channelized model observer) investigation with a reliable detection performance calculation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
(110.2960) Imaging systems : Image analysis
(110.2970) Imaging systems : Image detection systems
(110.3000) Imaging systems : Image quality assessment
(330.1880) Vision, color, and visual optics : Detection
(330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: November 19, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 1, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: April 2, 2014
Published: April 30, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Di Ge, Lu Zhang, Christine Cavaro-Ménard, and Patrick Le Callet, "Numerical stability issues on channelized Hotelling observer under different background assumptions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 1112-1117 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. H. Barrett, “Objective assessment of image quality: effects of quantum noise and object variability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1266–1278 (1990). [CrossRef]
  2. H. H. Barrett, J. L. Denny, R. F. Wagner, and K. J. Myers, “Objective assessment of image quality. II. Fisher information, Fourier crosstalk, and figures of merit for task performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 834–852 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, and E. Clarkson, “Objective assessment of image quality. III. ROC metrics, ideal observers, and likelihood-generating functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1520–1535 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Rolland and H. H. Barrett, “Effect of random background inhomogeneity on observer detection performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 649–658 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Narayan and G. Herman, “Prediction of human observer performance by numerical observers: an experimental study.” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 679–693 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. C. K. Abbey and H. H. Barrett, “Human- and model-observer performance in ramp-spectrum noise: effects of regularization and object variability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 473–488 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. P. Bruyant, H. Gifford, G. Gindi, P. Pretorius, and M. King, “Human and numerical observer studies of lesion detection in Ga-67 images obtained with MAP-EM reconstructions and anatomical priors,” in Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2004), pp. 4072–4075.
  8. B. D. Gallas and H. H. Barrett, “Validating the use of channels to estimate the ideal linear observer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1725–1738 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Daly, The Visible Differences Predictor: An Algorithm for the Assessment of Image Fidelity (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1993), Chap. 14, pp. 179–206.
  10. A. Watson and J. Solomon, “Model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2379–2391 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Zhang, C. Cavaro-Ménard, P. L. Callet, and L. H. K. Cooper, “The effects of anatomical information and observer expertise on abnormality detection task,” Proc. SPIE 7966, 79661G (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. B. Goossens, L. Platiša, E. Vansteenkiste, and W. Philips, “The use of steerable channels for detecting asymmetrical signals with random orientations,” Proc. SPIE 7627, 76270S (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Park, “Performance of a channelized-ideal observer using Laguerre–Gauss channels for detecting a Gaussian signal at a known location in different lumpy backgrounds,” Proc. SPIE 6146, 61460P (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Castella, K. Kinkel, F. Descombes, M. Eckstein, P. Sottas, F. Verdun, and F. Bochud, “Mammographic texture synthesis: second-generation clustered lumpy backgrounds using agenetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 16, 7595–7607 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Park, A. Badano, B. D. Gallas, and K. J. Myers, “Incorporating human contrast sensitivity in model observers for detection tasks,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 339–347 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. H.-P. Chan, B. Sahiner, R. F. Wagner, and N. Petrick, “Classifier design for computer-aided diagnosis: effects of finite sample size on the mean performance of classical and neural network classifiers,” Med. Phys. 26, 2654–2668 (1999). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited