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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 1, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 1984
  • pp: 725–737

Modeling the directional reflectance from complete homogeneous vegetation canopies with various leaf-orientation distributions

D. S. Kimes  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 1, Issue 7, pp. 725-737 (1984)

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The directional-reflectance distributions of radiant flux from homogeneous vegetation canopies with greater than 90% ground cover are analyzed with a radiative-transfer model. The model assumes that the leaves consist of small finite planes with Lambertian properties. Four theoretical canopies with different leaf-orientation distributions were studied: erectophile, spherical, planophile, and heliotropic canopies. The directional-reflectance distributions from the model closely resemble reflectance distributions measured in the field. The physical scattering mechanisms operating in the model explain the variations observed in the reflectance distributions as a function of leaf-orientation distribution, solar zenith angle, and leaf transmittance and reflectance. The simulated reflectance distributions show unique characteristics for each canopy. The basic understanding of the physical scattering properties of the different canopy geometries gained in this study provide a basis for developing techniques to infer leaf-orientation distributions of vegetation canopies from directional remote-sensing measurements.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: September 26, 1983
Manuscript Accepted: March 2, 1984
Published: July 1, 1984

D. S. Kimes, "Modeling the directional reflectance from complete homogeneous vegetation canopies with various leaf-orientation distributions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 725-737 (1984)

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  1. D. S. Kimes, “Dynamics of directional reflectance factor distributions for vegetation canopies,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1364–1372 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Smith, R. E. Oliver, “Effects of changing canopy directional reflectance on feature selection,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1599–1604 (1974); R. E. Oliver, J. A. Smith, “A stochastic canopy model of diurnal reflectance. Final report,” DAH CO4-74-60001 (U.S. Army Research Office, Durham, N.C., 1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Cooper, J. A. Smith, D. Pitts, “Reflectance of a vegetation canopy using the adding method,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4112–4117 (1982); J. Goudriaan, “Crop meteorology: a simulation study,” Thesis (Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1977); G. H. Suits, “The calculation of the directional reflectance of a vegetative canopy,” Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 117–125 (1972); J. Ross, The Radiation and Architecture of Plant Stands (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1981); W. Verhoef, J. J. J. Bunnik, “Influence of crop geometry on multispectral reflectance determined by the use of canopy reflectance models,” NLR MP 81042 U (National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1981), pp. 273–290; N. J. J. Bunnik, “The multispectral reflectance of shortwave radiation by agricultural crops in relation with their morphological and optical properties,” Thesis (Veenman and Zonen, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. S. Kimes, J. A. Kirchner, “Radiative transfer model for heterogeneous 3D scenes,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4119–4129 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Norman, J. M. Welles, “Radiative transfer in an array of canopies,” Agron. J. 75, 481–488 (1983). [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Kimes, J. A. Kirchner, “Diurnal variations of vegetation canopy structure,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 4, 257–271 (1983). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Nilson, “A theoretical analysis of the frequency of gaps in plant stands,” Agric. Meteorol. 8, 25–38 (1971). [CrossRef]
  8. C. T. deWit, “Photosynthesis of leaf canopies,” (Center for Agricultural Publications and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1965), Chap. 4.
  9. J. Ehleringer, I. Forseth, “Solar tracking by plants,” Science 210, 1094–1098 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. A. Kirchner, D. S. Kimes, J. E. McMurtrey, “Variation of directional reflectance factors with structural changes of a developing alfalfa canopy,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3766–3774 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. S. Kimes, W. W. Newcomb, J. B. Schutt, P. J. Pinter, R. D. Jackson, “Directional reflectance factor distributions of a cotton row crop,” Int. J. Remote Sensing (to be published).
  12. H. T. Breece, R. T. Holmes, “Bidirectional scattering characteristics of health green soybean and corn leaves in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 10, 119–127 (1971). [CrossRef]
  13. V. C. Vanderbilt, C. Grant, L. L. Beihl, B. F. Robinson, “Specular, diffuse, and polarized light scattered by two wheat canopies,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  14. D. S. Kimes, B. N. Holben, C. J. Tucker, W. W. Newcomb, “Optimal directional view angles for remote sensing missions,” Int. J. Remote Sensing (to be published).

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