OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 10, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 1993
  • pp: 2354–2362

Inner-scale effect on irradiance variance measured for weak-to-strong atmospheric scintillation

Anna Consortini, F. Cochetti, James H. Churnside, and Reginald J. Hill  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 10, Issue 11, pp. 2354-2362 (1993)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1136 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Experimental results are described of measurements of irradiance fluctuations of laser radiation through atmospheric turbulence. Simultaneous measurements of irradiance fluctuations, inner scale, and structure parameter were made in conditions of homogeneous turbulence during a number of summer days, from very early in the morning, before sunrise, until approximately noon. During the measurements the turbulence strength varied continuously, spanning very low as well as intermediate and very high levels. We used the data collected in selected intervals, during which turbulence was stationary, to obtain plots of irradiance variance versus the structure parameter for fixed ranges of values of the inner scale. The results clearly show the effect of the inner scale. For a given value of the structure parameter larger inner scales result in larger values of irradiance variance in the regime of strong scintillation.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: February 1, 1993
Revised Manuscript: April 26, 1993
Manuscript Accepted: April 29, 1993
Published: November 1, 1993

Anna Consortini, James H. Churnside, Reginald J. Hill, and F. Cochetti, "Inner-scale effect on irradiance variance measured for weak-to-strong atmospheric scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2354-2362 (1993)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. M. Obukhov, “Structure of the temperature field in turbulent flow,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geogr. Geofiz. 13, 58–69 (1949).
  2. V. I. Tatarskii, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Nauka, Moscow, 1971)(in Russian); English translation, The Effect of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (Ketter, Jerusalem, 1971).
  3. R. J. Hill, “Models of the scalar spectrum for turbulent advection,” J. Fluid Mech. 88, 541–562 (1978). [CrossRef]
  4. G. R. Ochs, R. J. Hill, “Optical-scintillation method of measuring turbulence inner scale,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2430–2432 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Azoulay, V. Thiermann, A. Jetter, A. Kohnle, Z. Azar, “Optical measurement of the inner scale of turbulence,”J. Phys. D 21, S41–S44 (1988). [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Hill, G. R. Ochs, “Inner-scale dependence of scintillation variances measured in weak scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1406–1411 (1992). [CrossRef]
  7. I. G. Yakushkin, “Asymptotic calculations of intensity fluctuations in a turbulent medium for long paths,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 18, 1224–1229 (1975). [CrossRef]
  8. I. G. Yakushkin, “Strong intensity fluctuations in the field of a light beam in a turbulent atmosphere,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 19, 270–276 (1976). [CrossRef]
  9. R. L. Fante, “Inner-scale size effect on the scintillation of light in the turbulent atmosphere,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 277–279 (1983). [CrossRef]
  10. I. G. Yakushkin, “Intensity fluctuations during small-angle scattering of wave fields (review),” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 28, 365–389 (1985). [CrossRef]
  11. R. G. Frehlich, “Intensity covariance of a point source in a random medium with a Kolmogorov spectrum and an inner scale of turbulence,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 360–366 (1987). [CrossRef]
  12. M. J. Beran, A. M. Whitman, “Effect of the turbulence inner scale on scintillation in the atmosphere,” in Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1115, 2–10 (1989). [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Whitman, M. J. Beran, “Two-scale solution for atmospheric scintillation from a point source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 735–737 (1988). [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Martin, S. M. Flatté, “Simulation of point-source scintillation through three-dimensional random media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 838–847 (1990). [CrossRef]
  15. R. J. Hill, S. F. Clifford, “Modified spectrum of atmospheric temperature fluctuations and its application to optical propagation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 892–899 (1978). [CrossRef]
  16. R. J. Hill, “Review of optical scintillation methods of measuring the refractive-index spectrum, inner scale, and surface fluxes,” Waves Random Media 2, 179–201 (1992). [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Churnside, R. J. Hill, G. Conforti, A. Consortini, “Aperture size and bandwidth requirements for measuring strong scintillation in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4126–4132 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. R. Ochs, W. D. Cartwright, D. D. Russell, “Optical Cn2instrument model II,”NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL WPL-51 (NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 1979). (Available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, Va. 22161; order number WPL51:PB 80-209000.)
  19. G. R. Ochs, W. D. Cartwright, “A crosswind measurement module for the model II optical Cn2instrument,”NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL WPL-53 (NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 1979). (A vailable from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Spring-field, Va. 22161; order number WPL53:PB 80-217607.)
  20. G. R. Ochs, J. K. Holler, J. J. Wilson, “An optical inner-scale meter,” NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL WPL-183 (NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 1990). (Available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, Va. 22161.)
  21. R. J. Hill, “Comparison of scintillation methods for measuring the inner scale of turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2187–2193 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Consortini, G. Conforti, “Detector saturation effect on higher order moments of intensity fluctuations in atmospheric laser propagation measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1075–1077 (1984). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Consortini, E. Briccolani, G. Conforti, “Strong scintillation statistics deterioration due to detector saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 101–107 (1986). [CrossRef]
  24. A. Consortini, R. J. Hill, “Reduction of the moments of intensity fluctuations caused by amplifier saturation for both the K and the log-normally modulated exponential probability densities,” Opt. Lett. 12, 304–306 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. H. Churnside, R. J. Hill, “Probability density of irradiance scintillations for strong path-integrated refractive turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 727–733 (1987). [CrossRef]
  26. N. Ben-Yoseph, E. Goldner, “Sample size influence on optical scintillation analysis. 1: Analytical treatment of the higher order irradiance moments,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2167–2171 (1988). [CrossRef]
  27. E. Goldner, N. Ben-Yoseph, “Sample size influence on optical scintillation analysis. 2: Simulation approach,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2172–2177 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. G. Frehlich, J. H. Churnside, “Statistical properties of estimates of the moments of laser scintillation,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1645–1659 (1989). [CrossRef]
  29. R. J. Hill, J. H. Churnside, “Observational challenges of strong scintillations of irradiance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 445–447 (1988). [CrossRef]
  30. G. Parry, “Measurement of atmospheric turbulence-induced intensity fluctuations in a laser beam,” Opt. Acta 28, 715–728 (1981). [CrossRef]
  31. R. L. Philips, L. C. Andrews, “Measured statistics of laser-light scattering in atmospheric turbulence,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1440–1445 (1981). [CrossRef]
  32. M. E. Gracheva, A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, V. L. V. Pokasov, “Similarity relations and their experimental verification for strong intensity fluctuations of laser radiation,” in Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, J. W. Strohbehn, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978). [CrossRef]
  33. R. J. Hill, S. F. Clifford, “Theory of saturation of optical scintillation by strong turbulence for arbitrary refractive-index spectra,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 675–686 (1981). [CrossRef]
  34. W. A. Coles, R. G. Frehlich, “Simultaneous measurements of angular scattering and intensity scintillation in the atmosphere,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1042–1048 (1982). [CrossRef]
  35. J. M. Martin, S. M. Flatté, “Intensity images and statistics from numerical simulation of plane-wave propagation in 3-D random media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2111–2126 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. M. Flatté, G.-Y. Wang, J. Martin, “Irradiance variance of optical waves through atmospheric turbulence by numerical simulation and comparison with experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2363–2370 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited