Transient chromatic adaptation produced by an abrupt change of background color permits an easier and closer approach to cone isolation than does steady-state adaptation. Using this technique, we measured middle-wave-sensitive (M-) cone spectral sensitivities in 11 normals and 2 protanopes and long-wavelength-sensitive (L-) cone spectral sensitivities in 12 normals and 4 deuteranopes. Although there is great individual variation in the adapting intensity required for effective isolation, there is little variation in the shape of the M- and L-cone spectral-sensitivity functions across subjects. At middle and long wavelengths, our mean spectral sensitivities agree extremely well with dichromatic spectral sensitivities and with the M- and L-cone fundamentals of Smith and Pokorny [ Vision Res. 15, 161 ( 1975)] and of Vos and Walraven [ Vision Res. 11, 799 ( 1971)], both of which are based on the CIE (Judd-revised) 2° color-matching functions (CMF’s). But the agreement with the M-cone fundamentals of Estévez [ Ph.D. dissertation, Amsterdam University ( 1979)] and of Vos et al. [ Vision Res. 30, 936 ( 1990)], which are based on the Stiles–Burch 2° CMF’s, is poor. Using our spectral-sensitivity data, tritanopic color-matching data, and Stiles’s π3, we derive new sets of cone fundamentals. The consistency of the proposed fundamentals based on either the Stiles–Burch 2° CMF’s or the CIE 10° large-field CMF’s with each other, with protanopic and deuteranopic spectral sensitivities, with tritanopic color-matching data, and with short-wavelength-sensitive (S-) cone spectral-sensitivity data suggests that they are to be perferred over fundamentals based on the CIE 2° CMF’s.
© 1993 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: June 12, 1992
Revised Manuscript: June 21, 1993
Manuscript Accepted: May 24, 1993
Published: December 1, 1993
Andrew Stockman, Donald I. A. MacLeod, and Nancy E. Johnson, "Spectral sensitivities of the human cones," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2491-2521 (1993)