OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 10, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 1993
  • pp: 1509–1516

Loci of achromatic points throughout the life span

John S. Werner and Brooke E. Schefrin  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 10, Issue 7, pp. 1509-1516 (1993)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1235 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Mixtures of monochromatic lights that appear achromatic were measured for 50 normal, trichromatic observers ranging in age from 11 to 78 years. Stimuli were presented to one eye as a 1°-diameter, 1-s flash (10-s interstimulus interval) in Maxwellian view. We found the achromatic locus by varying the intensity ratio of each observer’s spectral unique blue and unique yellow while maintaining constant overall retinal illuminance. Measurements were made for three levels of retinal illuminance (10,100,1000 trolands). Additional verification of the position of the achromatic locus in color space was obtained for 23 subjects with the use of a mixture composed of 600-nm light and its spectral complement. There were no significant changes in the achromatic loci as a function of age. The mean achromatic locus in CIE chromaticity space was x, y = 0.31, 0.31 or u′, v′ = 0.21, 0.46. These results suggest that partial compensation for age-related changes in visual mechanisms occurs in a way that preserves constancy of the achromatic locus across the life span.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: September 23, 1991
Revised Manuscript: January 15, 1993
Manuscript Accepted: January 26, 1993
Published: July 1, 1993

John S. Werner and Brooke E. Schefrin, "Loci of achromatic points throughout the life span," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1509-1516 (1993)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Walraven, J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. G. Priest, “The spectral distribution of energy required to evoke the gray sensation,” Sci. Papers Bur. Stand. 17, 231–265 (1921). [CrossRef]
  4. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “A psychophysical study of white. I. Neutral adaptation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521–527 (1951). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Valberg, “A method for the precise determination of achromatic colours including white,” Vision Res. 11, 157–160 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Ejima, S. Takahashi, M. Akita, “Achromatic sensation for trichromatic mixture as a function of stimulus intensity,” Vision Res. 26, 1065–1071 (1986). [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. Bailey, R. W. Massof, “In search of the physiological neutral point,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 13, 135–139 (1974). [PubMed]
  8. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “On the measurement of dichromatic neutral points,” Acta Chromatica 2, 207–216 (1974/1975).
  9. K. Knoblauch, L. Sirovich, B. R. Wooten, “Linearity of hue cancellation in sex-linked dichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 136–146 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Akita, “Cone-interaction in the yellow–blue opponent process,” in Proceedings of Stiles-Wyszecki Memorial Symposium on Color Vision Models, M. Richter, ed. (Muster-Schmidt Verlay, Göttingen, 1987), pp. 161–169.
  11. C. M. Cicerone, A. L. Nagy, J. L. Nerger, “Equilibrium hue judgements of dichromats,” Vision Res. 27, 983–991 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959). [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,”J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).
  16. J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes in the central visual field for short-wavelength-sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2131–2139 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. L. Walraven, “A closer look at the tritanopic convergence point,” Vision Res. 14, 1339–1343 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978). [CrossRef]
  20. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1947).
  21. K. Ruddock, “The effect of age upon colour vision—II. Changes with age in light transmission of the ocular media,” Vision Res. 5, 47–58 (1965). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. McL. Purdy, “Spectral hue as a function of intensity,” Am. J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931). [CrossRef]
  24. J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity—I: Red/green equilibria,” Vision Res. 14, 1127–1140 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. Powell, “Lenses for correcting chromatic aberration of the eye,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4152–4155 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. O. Harvey, “Efficient estimation of sensory thresholds,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 18, 623–632 (1986). [CrossRef]
  28. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. O. J. Dunn, V. A. Clark, Applied Statistics: Analysis of Variance and Regression (Wiley, New York, 1974).
  30. D. B. Judd, D. L. MacAdam, G. Wyszecki, “Spectral distribution of typical daylight as a function of correlated color temperature,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1031–1040 (1964). [CrossRef]
  31. C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, Data Analysis: A Model-Comparison Approach (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, Calif., 1989).
  32. W. D. Wright, “Talking about color,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 138–139 (1988). [CrossRef]
  33. B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Color scaling of broadband surfaces in younger and older observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 33, 703 (1992).
  34. D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, “Opponent-response functions related to measured cone photopigments,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 429–430 (1968). [CrossRef]
  36. G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Short-wavelength-sensitive-cone sensitivity loss with aging: a protective role for macular pigment?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2140–2144 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. F. M. DeMonasterio, “Macular pigmentation and the spectral sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of macaques,” Vision Res. 18, 1273–1277 (1978). [CrossRef]
  39. E. Zrenner, P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in rhesus monkey retina,” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollen, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1983).
  40. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift models of anomalous trichromacy,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196–1209 (1977). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. L. T. Maloney, B. A. Wandell, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 29–33 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Mechanisms of color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1662–1672 (1986). [CrossRef]
  43. D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, “Essay concerning color constancy,” in Annual Review of Psychology (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, Calif., 1989), pp. 1–22. [CrossRef]
  44. J. Walraven, T. Benzschawel, B. E. Rogowitz, M. P. Lucassen, “Testing the contrast explanation of color constancy,” in From Pigments to Perception, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1991), pp. 369–378. [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited