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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 11, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1994
  • pp: 211–226

Light scattering from multilayer optics. II. Application to experiment

C. Amra  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 11, Issue 1, pp. 211-226 (1994)

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The tools of investigation presented in part I of this study [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 197 ( 1994)] are applied to the analysis of experimental results. First the limits of the scatterometer are analyzed in detail. Problems of calibration, parasitic light, linearity, and repeatability of measurements are discussed. The roughness spectrum is shown to be an intrinsic property of surface defects. It is proved that this spectrum is perfectly reproduced in the whole range of measurable spatial frequencies by a metallic layer. Dielectric materials under study are TiO2, Ta2O5, and SiO2 obtained by ion-assisted deposition, ion plating, and electron beam evaporation. The inverse problem is solved with isotropy degree curves, and the scattering parameters that are low-pass filters and residual spectra are extracted for single layers and multilayers. Replication of defects in the measurable bandwidth is shown to be perfect at all interfaces of a multilayer. In addition, the thin-film materials bring low residual roughnesses. Coatings are also produced at oblique deposition, and light scattering is used to detect the oblique growth of the thin-film layers. The role of local defects is investigated.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: December 14, 1992
Revised Manuscript: June 17, 1993
Manuscript Accepted: June 17, 1993
Published: January 1, 1994

C. Amra, "Light scattering from multilayer optics. II. Application to experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 211-226 (1994)

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  1. C. Amra, “Light scattering from multilayer optics. I. Tools of investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 197–210 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. C. Amra, P. Roche, D. Torriccini, “Multi-wavelength (0.45 μm to 10.6 μm) angle-resolved scatterometer or how to extend the optical window,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5462–5474 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Amra, C. Grèzes-Besset, P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Description of a scattering apparatus: application to the problems of characterization of opaque surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2723–2730 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Characterizations of optical surfaces by measurement of scattering distribution,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3561–3566 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Croce, L. Prod’homme, “Ecarts observés dans l’interprétation des indicatrices de diffusion optique par des théories vectorielles simples,”J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 143–151 (1985). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Mattsson, “Light scattering and characterization of thin films,” in Thin Film Technologies II, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.652, 215–220 (1986). [CrossRef]
  7. P. Roche, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, “Antiscattering transparent monolayers: theory and experiment,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1, 1032–1033 (1984). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Amra, G. Albrand, P. Roche, “Theory and application of antiscattering single layers: antiscattering antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2695–2702 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. R. McNeil, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. M. Bennett, “Surface smoothing effects and optical scatter characteristics of coated metal surfaces,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 140–145 (1988). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Amra, J. H. Apfel, E. Pelletier, “Role of interface correlation in light scattering by a multilayer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3134–3151 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, “Realization of Fabry–Perot filters for wavelength demultiplexing,” in Thin Film Technologies II, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.652, 27–32 (1986). [CrossRef]
  12. C. Grèzes-Besset, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, “Layer uniformity obtained by vacuum evaporation: application to Fabry–Perot filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2960–2964 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazaridès, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium doxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazaridès, E. Pelletier, “Automatic determination of the optical constants of inhomogeneous thin films,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4020–4029 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Pelletier, F. Flory, Y. Hu, “Optical characterization of thin films by guided waves,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2918–2924 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Amra, “Minimizing scattering in multilayers: technique for searching optimal realization conditions,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ.756, 265–271 (1987).
  17. J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J. 7, 308–313 (1965). [CrossRef]
  18. A. G. Dirks, H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–223 (1977). [CrossRef]
  19. R. B. Sargent, Dar-Yuan Song, H. A. Macleod, “Computer simulation of substrate defect propagation in thin films,” in Modeling of Optical Thin Films, M. R. Jacobson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.821, (1987).
  20. C. Amra, “Scattering characterization of materials in thin film form,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1438, 309–323 (1989).
  21. C. Amra, “Calculs et mesures de diffusion appliqués à l’étude de la rugosité dans les traitements optiques multicouches,”J. Opt. (Paris) 21, 83–98 (1990). [CrossRef]
  22. C. Amra, “From light scattering to the microstructure of thin film multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5481–5491 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Amra, L. Bruel, C. Grèzes-Besset, “Comparison of surface and bulk scattering in optical multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5492–5503 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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