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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 11, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1994
  • pp: 1619–1627

Three-dimensional transfer functions in 4Pi confocal microscopes

Min Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 11, Issue 5, pp. 1619-1627 (1994)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.11.001619


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Abstract

We investigate three-dimensional transfer functions in order to understand image formation in the recently proposed 4Pi confocal microscope [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2159 ( 1992); Opt. Commun. 93, 277 ( 1992)]. Both nonfluorescence and fluorescence imaging methods are considered, and the effects of apodization functions are taken into account. It is shown that for a 4Pi confocal system of finite-sized aperture the cutoff spatial frequency in the axial direction is larger than that in the transverse direction; this behavior is opposite that of conventional confocal systems, explaining the observation of high axial resolution in 4Pi confocal systems. In addition, the three-dimensional optical transfer function for a conventional confocal fluorescence microscope of high aperture is presented.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: June 18, 1993
Revised Manuscript: November 29, 1993
Manuscript Accepted: November 30, 1993
Published: May 1, 1994

Citation
Min Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Three-dimensional transfer functions in 4Pi confocal microscopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1619-1627 (1994)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-11-5-1619


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