OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 11, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 1994
  • pp: 2004–2010

Storage mechanism of volume phase holograms recorded in silver halide emulsions

Victor Weiss and A. A. Friesem  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 11, Issue 7, pp. 2004-2010 (1994)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1006 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A relatively simple model for elucidating the holographic storage mechanism in bleached silver halide recording materials is developed. In this model the storage of holographic gratings includes three separate contributions that are due to silver halide grains, a gelatin matrix, and voids in the gelatin matrix. Linear refractive-index-modulation-versus-exposure responses are assumed for the individual contributions, which are summed to produce the overall diffraction-efficiency (DE)-versus-exposure response. Calculated and experimental results reveal that, through reduction of one or more of the contributions to the holographic storage in a composite emulsion system through chemical means, the maximum achievable DE’s increase and may reach 100% in the case of a homogeneous and lossless phase grating. Specifically, the addition of sulfite or triethanolamine to the processing formulations in a reversal bleach processing procedure or in a silver halide sensitized gelatin procedure had the effect of increasing the experimental DE’s. The corresponding calculated DE-versus-exposure responses indicate that these additives suppressed the gelatin tanning or matrix void contributions.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: August 10, 1993
Revised Manuscript: February 7, 1994
Manuscript Accepted: February 16, 1994
Published: July 1, 1994

Victor Weiss and A. A. Friesem, "Storage mechanism of volume phase holograms recorded in silver halide emulsions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2004-2010 (1994)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. J. Caulfield, ed., Handbook of Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 8 p. 281, and Chap. 9, p. 355.
  2. L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, New York, 1981), Chap. 10 p. 254.
  3. P. Hariharan, Optical Holography (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1984), Chap. 7 p. 88.
  4. N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in holographic bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).
  5. D. J. Cooke, A. A. Ward, “Reflection-hologram processing for high efficiency in silver-halide emulsions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 934–941 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Weiss, E. Millul, A. A. Friesem, “Photolytically stable bleached silver halide emulsions for holographic recording,” J. Imag. Sci. Technol. 37, 92–96 (1993).
  7. R. L. van Renesse, F. A. J. Bouts, “Efficiency of bleaching agents for holography,” Optik 38, 156–168 (1973).
  8. A. A. Friesem, J. S. Zelenka, “Effects of film nonlinearities in holography,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1755–1759 (1967). [CrossRef]
  9. C. W. Slinger, R. R. A. Syms, L. Solymar, “Non linear recording in silver halide planar volume holograms,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 217–224 (1985). [CrossRef]
  10. A. A. Ward, L. Solymar, “Diffraction efficiency limitations of holograms recorded in silver-halide emulsions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1850–1855 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. Weiss, Y. Amitai, A. A. Friesem, E. Millul, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin holographic recording materials” in Sixth Meeting in Israel on Optical Engineering,R. Finkler, J. Shamir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1038, 110–114 (1989). [CrossRef]
  12. V. Weiss, E. Millul, “Bleached silver halide holographic recording materials,” in Holography Techniques and Applications,W. P. Jueptner, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1026, 55–61 (1988). [CrossRef]
  13. A. G. Tull, “Tanning development and its application to dye transfer images,” J. Photogr. Sci. 11, 1–26 (1963).
  14. T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process, 4th ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1977), Chap. 15 p. 437, and Chap. 21 p. 609.
  15. R. L. van Renesse, “Scattering properties of fine-grained bleached emulsions,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 114–119 (1980).
  16. P. Hariharan, “Basic processes involved in the production of bleached holograms,” J. Photogr. Sci. 38, 76–81 (1990).
  17. D. Angell, “Improved diffraction efficiency of silver halide (sensitized) gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4692–4702 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, G. D. Aumiler, “Multicomponent photopolymer systems for volume phase holograms and grating devices,” Appl. Opt. 15, 534–541 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” in Advances in Photochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1980), Vol.12, p. 201. [CrossRef]
  20. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
  21. R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, “Refractive index modulation mechanism in bleached silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 369–371 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. K. Case, R. Alferness, “Index modulation and spatial harmonic generation in dichromated gelatin films,” Appl. Phys. 10, 41–51 (1976). [CrossRef]
  23. R. T. Ingwall, M. Troll, “Mechanism of hologram formation in DMP-128 photopolymer,” Opt. Eng. 28, 586–591 (1989). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited