A novel 3 × 3 transfer-matrix method is developed to propagate off-axis Gaussian beams in astigmatic optical systems that may include tilted, displaced, or curved optical elements. Unlike in a previous generalized ray matrix formalism, optical elements that possess gain or loss such as Gaussian apertures, complex lenslike media, and amplifiers are included; and a new beam transformation is found. In addition, a novel exponential variable-reflectivity mirror, which displaces a Gaussian beam without changing its spot size, and a complex prismlike medium are introduced.
© 1995 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: October 4, 1994
Revised Manuscript: February 2, 1995
Manuscript Accepted: February 8, 1995
Published: July 1, 1995
Anthony A. Tovar and Lee W. Casperson, "Generalized beam matrices: Gaussian beam propagation in misaligned complex optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1522-1533 (1995)