OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 13, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1996
  • pp: 557–565

Inner retinal contributions to the primate photopic fast flicker electroretinogram

Ronald A. Bush and Paul A. Sieving  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 13, Issue 3, pp. 557-565 (1996)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (340 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The primate electroretinogram (ERG) recorded at the cornea in response to fast flickering light is thought to reflect primarily the cone photoreceptor potential. We investigated the origin of the photopic 33-Hz corneal flicker ERG to square-wave and photostrobe flashes by recording in the monkey before and after blocking postsynaptic responses with intravitreal injections of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid and/or cis-2, 3-piperidiendicarboxylic acid or sodium aspartate. Blocking postsynapic ON or OFF responses produced effects on the timing and the waveform of the 33-Hz flicker ERG similar to changes in the b and the d waves in the corneal single-flash ERG. When all the ERG waves of postsynaptic origin in the flash ERG were abolished the flicker response was greatly suppressed, suggesting that postsynaptic cells producing the b and the d waves make major contributions to the photopic fast flicker ERG.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: May 23, 1995
Revised Manuscript: July 24, 1995
Manuscript Accepted: July 27, 1995
Published: March 1, 1996

Ronald A. Bush and Paul A. Sieving, "Inner retinal contributions to the primate photopic fast flicker electroretinogram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 557-565 (1996)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford U. Press, London, 1947).
  2. W. J. Donovan, W. S. Baron, “Identification of the R–G-cone difference signal in the corneal electroretinogram of the primate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1014–1020 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. De-Zheng, J. Liang, L. Wu, T. Luo, Y. U. Minzhong, “Quantitative evaluation of flicker ERG waveforms in low vision patients,” Eye Sci. 8, 122–125 (1992).
  5. B. Falsini, G. Iarossi, V. Porciatti, E. Merendino, A. Fadda, S. Germola, L. Buzzonetti, “Postreceptoral contribution to macular dysfunction in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 4282–4290 (1994). [PubMed]
  6. W. Baron, R. M. Boynton, “Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli,” J. Physiol. (London) 246, 311–331 (1975).
  7. W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, R. W. Hammon, “Component analysis of the foveal local electroretinogram elicited with sinusoidal flicker,” Vision Res. 19, 479–490 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, D. van Norren, “Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram,” Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. F. Miller, J. E. Dowling, “Intracellular responses of the Müller (glial) cells of mudpuppy retina: their relation to b-wave of the electroretinogram,” J. Neurophysiol. 33, 323–341 (1970). [PubMed]
  10. W. Ernst, G. B. Arden, “Separation of two PIII components in the rat electroretinogram by a flicker method,” Vision Res. 12, 1759–1761 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. A. Abraham, M. Alpern, “Factors influencing threshold of the fundamental electrical response to sinusoidal excitation of human photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 151–172 (1984).
  12. F. A. Abraham, M. Alpern, D. B. Kirk, “Electroretinograms evoked by sinusoidal excitation of human cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 363, 135–150 (1985).
  13. D. J. Creel, J. M. Wang, K. C. Wong, “Transient blindness associated with transurethral resection of the prostate,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1537–1539 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Xu, J. Xu, B. Huang, C. T. Livsey, C. J. Karwoski, “Comparison of pharmacological agents (aspartate vs. aminophosphonobutyric plus kynurenic acids) to block synaptic transmission from retinal photoreceptors in frog,” Exp. Eye Res. 52, 691–698 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. A. Bush, P. A. Sieving, “A proximal retinal component in the primate photopic ERG a-wave,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 635–645 (1994). [PubMed]
  16. P. A. Sieving, K. Murayama, F. Naarendorp, “Push–pull model of the primate photopic electroretinogram: a role for hyperpolarizing neurons in shaping the b-wave,” Vis. Neurosci. 11, 519–532 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–63 (1954). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Weiner, M. A. Sandberg, “Normal change in the foveal cone ERG with increasing duration of light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2842–2845 (1991). [PubMed]
  19. N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, G. A. Fishman, “Light adaptation, rods, and the human cone flicker ERG,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 145–150 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. G. Knapp, P. H. Schiller, “The contribution of on-bipolar cells to the electroretinogram of rabbits and monkeys,” Vision Res. 24, 1841–1846 (1984). [CrossRef]
  21. K. T. Brown, K. Watanabe, “Isolation and identification of a receptor potential from the pure cone fovea of the monkey retina,” Nature (London) 193, 958–960 (1962). [CrossRef]
  22. R. D. Penn, W. A. Hagins, “Signal transmission along retinal rods and the origin of the a-wave,” Nature (London) 223, 201–205 (1969). [CrossRef]
  23. X. Xu, C. J. Karwoski, “Current source density analysis of retinal field potentials. II. Pharmacological analysis of the b-wave and m-wave,” J. Neurophysiol. 72, 96–105 (1994). [PubMed]
  24. D. S. Faber, “Analysis of the slow transretinal potentials in response to light,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New York, at Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y., 1969).
  25. E. A. Newman, L. L. Odette, “Model of electroretinogram b-wave generation: a test of the K+hypothesis,” J. Neurophysiol. 51, 164–182 (1984). [PubMed]
  26. K. T. Brown, K. Watanabe, M. Murakami, “The early and late receptor potentials of monkey cones and rods,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 457–482 (1965). [CrossRef]
  27. R. A. Stockton, M. M. Slaughter, “B-wave of the electroretinogram: a reflection of on bipolar cell activity,” J. Gen. Physiol. 93, 101–122 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, “The ‘OFF’ response of the human electroretinogram does not contribute to the brief flash ‘b-wave,’” Vis. Neurosci. 11, 667–673 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. M. Slaughter, R. F. Miller, “2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid: a new tool for retina research,” Science 211, 182–185 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. Nawy, D. R. Copenhagen, “The glutamate analog 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate antagonizes synaptic transmission from cones to horizontal cells in goldfish retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 86, 1726–1730 (1989). [CrossRef]
  31. X. L. Yang, S. M. Wu, “Effects of CNQX, APB, PDA and kynurenate on horizontal cells of the tiger salamander retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 3, 207–212 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. M. Slaughter, R. F. Miller, “An excitatory amino acid antagonist blocks cone input to sign-conserving second-order retinal neurons,” Science 219, 1230–1232 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. P. Gallemore, E. R. Griff, R. H. Steinberg, “Evidence in support of a photoreceptor origin for the ‘light-peak substance,’ ” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 566–571 (1988). [PubMed]
  34. V. J. Balcar, G. A. Johnston, “The structural specificity of the high affinity uptake of L-glutamate and L-aspartate by rat brain slices,” J. Neurochem. 19, 2657–2666 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. K. Wakabayashi, J. Gieser, P. A. Sieving, “Aspartate separation of the scotopic threshold response (STR) from the photoreceptor a-wave of the cat and monkey ERG,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1615–1622 (1988). [PubMed]
  36. M. F. Marmor, G. B. Arden, S. E. Nilsson, E. Zrenner, “Standard for clinical retinography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 816–819 (1989). [CrossRef]
  37. R. A. Bush, P. A. Sieving, “Monkey intraretinal photopic ERG responses in vivoafter glutamate analogs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 36, 445 (1995).
  38. S. Nawy, D. R. Copenhagen, “Multiple classes of glutamate receptor on depolarizing bipolar cells in retina,” Nature (London) 325, 56–58 (1987). [CrossRef]
  39. N. Tian, M. M. Slaughter, “Correlation of dynamic responses in the ON bipolar neuron and the b-wave of the electroretinogram,” Vision Res. 35, 1359–1364 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. J. G. Robson, L. J. Frishman, “Response linearity and kinetics of the cat retina: the bipolar cell component of the dark-adapted electroretinogram,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 837–850 (1995). [CrossRef]
  41. R. Hanitzsch, T. Lichtenberger, W.-U. Mättig, “The influence of MgCl2and APB on the light-induced potassium changes and the ERG b-wave of the isolated superfused rat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Res. (to be published).
  42. W. S. Baron, “Chromatic adaptation and flicker-frequency effects on primate R–G-cone difference signal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1008–1013 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited