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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 13, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 1996
  • pp: 1637–1644

Generalized Coddington equations in ophthalmic lens design

J. E. A. Landgrave and Jesús R. Moya-Cessa  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 13, Issue 8, pp. 1637-1644 (1996)

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A matrix equation for the refraction of a thin pencil of rays by a surface of arbitrary shape is derived. The equivalence of this equation and previous nonmatrix equations derived for the same purpose is established. Potential applications of this matrix equation are in the field of ophthalmic lens design. The design of progressive-addition lenses, or just the thorough evaluation of spherotoric lenses, is an example of a task that requires the ability to propagate a thin pencil of rays under very general conditions. The matrix version of the generalized Coddington equations proposed here is a fitting tool for this end.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: June 21, 1995
Revised Manuscript: January 31, 1996
Manuscript Accepted: February 12, 1996
Published: August 1, 1996

J. E. A. Landgrave and Jesús R. Moya-Cessa, "Generalized Coddington equations in ophthalmic lens design," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1637-1644 (1996)

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  19. As is customary, the direction of the normal to the surface is taken in the direction of the incident ray.
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  21. Formally, in a one-dimensional expansion o(hn) means terms such that limh→ 0o(hn)/hn= 0.
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  23. At normal incidence we cannot define a plane of incidence, and the interpretation of the Euler angles that we have chosen must be reconsidered. When β= I= 0, one of the two other rotations is evidently redundant. Since we have shown that α1= α, for consistency we must set α′= α= 0 when β′= β= 0. This means that in this case P1= T1(γ) (an orthogonal matrix), where γ is now the angle from the O¯usaxis to the O¯uaxis. Clearly P1′=T1(γ′), and in general γ′≠ γ. But none of these considerations affects the subsequent arguments of our proof; they are included here only for the purpose of giving a clear interpretation to the results of Section 3 in the special case of normal incidence.
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  28. We can verify this condition in Eq. (54) with the equation tr Z= z11+ z22= λ1+ λ2. We have already sketched a proof in Section 4 to show that z12= z21.

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