We propose an algorithm that transforms a digitized color image so as to simulate for normal observers the appearance of the image for people who have dichromatic forms of color blindness. The dichromat's color confusions are deduced from colorimetry, and the residual hues in the transformed image are derived from the reports of unilateral dichromats described in the literature. We represent color stimuli as vectors in a three-dimensional LMS space, and the simulation algorithm is expressed in terms of transformations of this space. The algorithm replaces each stimulus by its projection onto a reduced stimulus surface. This surface is defined by a neutral axis and by the LMS locations of those monochromatic stimuli that are perceived as the same hue by normal trichromats and a given type of dichromat. These monochromatic stimuli were a yellow of 575 nm and a blue of 475 nm for the protan and deutan simulations, and a red of 660 nm and a blue–green of 485 nm for the tritan simulation. The operation of the algorithm is demonstrated with a mosaic of square color patches. A protanope and a deuteranope accepted the match between the original and the appropriate image, confirming that the reduction is colorimetrically accurate. Although we can never be certain of another's sensations, the simulation provides a means of quantifying and illustrating the residual color information available to dichromats in any digitized image.
© 1997 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: November 27, 1996
Revised Manuscript: April 11, 1997
Manuscript Accepted: April 11, 1997
Published: October 1, 1997
Hans Brettel, Françoise Viénot, and John D. Mollon, "Computerized simulation of color appearance for dichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2647-2655 (1997)